Resource Library

11th Annual Congressional Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Expo + Forum Website7/2008
On July 31st on Capitol Hill, the Sustainable Energy Coalition hosted the 11th annual Congressional Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency EXPO + Forum in cooperation with Members of the US House of Representatives and US Senate Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Caucuses. The EXPO addressed the role that sustainable energy technologies are ready to play in solving the myriad problems facing America today.
A Transportation Research Program for Mitigating and Adapting to Climate Change and Conserving Energy Report12/2009
TRB Special Report 299
This book identifies research needs with regard to policies and strategies relating to the use of the transportation system and to assist infrastructure owners in adapting to climate change; focuses on research programs that could provide guidance to officials at all levels responsible for policies that affect the use of surface transportation infrastructure and its operation, maintenance, and construction; and aims to help officials begin to adapt the infrastructure to climate changes that are already occurring or that are expected to occur in the next several decades.

Author(s): Transportation Research Board
Moving Away From High Gas Prices: Transportation Policy and Oil Independence Website7/2008
Proceedings from a July 17, 2008, briefing by the Environmental and Energy Study Institute to Congress on federal transportation policy options to reduce the impact of rising gas prices and the U.S. dependence on foreign oil.
TERRApod: Road Ecology (Episode 1) Video1/2008
An introduction to the concepts behind road ecology using the flora and fauna of Montana.

Author(s): Terra and WTI
"Division Street" Road Ecology Documentary Film Trailer Video1/2009
Produced by Eric Bendick, a student in the Montana State University Graduate Science and Natural History Film Program, this road ecology documentary film was an official selection of the Wild and Scenic Environmental Film Festival. View the trailer here.

Author(s): Eric Bendick
20% Wind Energy by 2030: Changing America’s Electricity Supply Website7/2008
A July 25, 2008, briefing by the Environmental and Energy Study Institute to Congress on the feasibility of expanding wind power to 20% of U.S. energy needs by 2030 and the creation of 500,000 jobs.
20,000 Kilometres of Migration Corridors. A Safety Net for the European Wildcat Outreach Brochure1/2008
The goal of the BUND project "A Safety Net for the European Wildcat" is to link up 20,000 km of Germany’s forests, forming connections between the last habitats of the European wildcat. The once expansive forests are now fragmented by agriculture, settlements and roads. For strict forest residents such as the European wildcat they are scattered like islands in the sea, but green corridors can offer them new habitats and facilitate the exchange between the isolated regions.

Author(s): BUND
2006 Roadmap To State Highway Safety Laws Report1/2006
This report evaluates all 50 states and DC on their progress in adopting critical highway safety laws in the previous year identified by Advocates as necessary to reducing the toll of deaths and injuries caused by motor vehicle crashes.

Author(s): Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety
A Comparison of the Impacts of Culverts vs. Bridges on Stream Habitat and Aquatic Fauna Report1/2007
An interdisciplinary look at the differences in impacts between culverts and bridges on stream habitat and stream fauna. Four essential components: geomorphology, toxicology, freshwater mussels, fish passage.

Author(s): North Carolina State University and NCDOT
A poem about wildlife and highways Poem10/2008
"Stopping Along the Way" by David Wagoner. Appeared on WAMU 88.5 (NPR-DC) on Thursday, October 16, 2008.

Author(s): David Wagoner
A Rapid, Strong, and Convergent Genetic Response to Urban Habitat Fragmentation in Four Divergent and Widespread Vertebrates Academic Paper9/2010
Habitat fragmentation by urbanization causes populations of animals and plants to be isolated in patches of suitable habitat surrounded by non-native vegetation, asphalt, concrete, and human structures. This can lead to genetic divergence between patches and to decreased genetic diversity within patches through genetic drift and inbreeding. Authors examined population genetic patterns in four vertebrate species, three lizards and one bird, in urban southern CA. All four showed significant reductions in gene flow over relatively short geographic and temporal scales. For all species, the greatest genetic divergence was found where development was oldest and most intensive, and all showed reduction in gene flow associated with intervening roads and freeways.

Author(s): K. Semple Delaney, S.P.D. Riley, R.N. Fisher
AASHTO Report Report1/2005
DOT Supported Positions at Federal and State Resource Agencies, Local Governments, and Tribes, 2005, and Changes from 2003
AASHTO Transportation and Climate Change Resource Center Website1/2009
AASHTO's Climate Change Program is designed to assist state DOTs understand the potential effects of climate change and the range of strategies and options for climate change mitigation and adaptation. The Climate Change Steering Committee and the tasks being implemented by the Climate Change Technical Assistance Program are helping achieve these goals.

Author(s): AASHTO
Ability of Wildlife Overpasses to Provide Connectivity and Prevent Genetic Isolation Academic Paper3/2009
Authors reviewed research on wildlife overpasses in the context of their genetic effectiveness to provide connectivity between population patches that have been isolated by road construction. To assess the genetic effectiveness of wildlife overpasses, long-term monitoring programs, including fieldwork and genetic analyses, are needed.

Author(s): Luca Corlatti, Klaus Hacklander and Fredy Frey-Roos
Advances in Wildlife Crossing Technologies Report10/2009
Public Roads publication, Sept/Oct 2009.
Examines the pros and cons of animal detection systems, warning signs, and electric mats and fencing, with examples from Arizona.

Author(s): Mary Gray, FHWA
Alaska Spends Millions on Roads and Bridges without Financial Plans to Complete the Projects Report2/2010
Represents a statewide analysis of transportation decision-making in Alaska along with recommendations for the Parnell Administration to address systemic problems regarding costly transportation projects. Covers five expensive state transportation projects: Gravina Island Access, Juneau Access Road/Ferry, Knik Arm Bridge, and the Roads to Nome and Umiat.

Author(s): Lois Epstein, Alaska Transportation Priorities Project
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Website
For an extended list of organizations see AASHTOs compilation at
American Wildlands Safe Passages Program Video3/2009
Executive Director of American Wildlands speaks about the organization's Safe Passages Program and the promotional Safe Passages Art Contest.

Author(s): KBZK News
An Assessment of Laws and Regulations Pertinent to Road and Highway Building On National Forest Land (Habitat Connectivity) Report1/0
A list of laws, regulations and direction that may require analysis or consideration of fish and wildlife connectivity on or across National Forests, and in some situations may require habitat and/or population connectivity.

Author(s): Bill Ruediger
Animal-Vehicle Collision Data Collection Report1/2007
NCHRP Synthesis 370: A Synthesis of Highway Practice
This synthesis examines the extent to which animal-vehicle collision (AVC) and animal carcass count (AC) data are collected, analyzed, and used across the U.S. and Canada. The data were obtained through a survey of DOTs and DNRs for each state or province. Based on the results, a summary of “successful” examples, and a list of the needs and benefits of AVC and AC data collection programs, suggestions were formulated for initiating new, or improving existing, AVC or AC data collection programs.

Author(s): WTI: Huijser, Fuller, Wagner, Hardy, Clevenger
Animal-Vehicle Collisions and Habitat Connectivity along montana Highway 83 in the Seeley-Swan Valley, Montana: A Reconnaissance Report1/2006
A report prepared in January of 2006 for the Montana Department of Transportation in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration.
Animal-Vehicle Crash Mitigation Using Advanced Technology Report3/2009
Explores the impact of animal-detection warning signs on reducing vehicle speeds or collisions with large animals. Study site: along US Highway 191 in Yellowstone National Park.

Author(s): Oregon Dept. of Transportation
ARC: International Wildlife Crossing Infrastructure Design Competition Video1/2011
ARC will engage the best and most innovative international, interdisciplinary design teams—comprised of landscape architects, architects, engineers, ecologists, and other experts—to create the next generation of wildlife crossing structures for North America’s roadways. This competition seeks specifically from its entries, innovation in feasible, buildable context-sensitive and compelling design solutions for safe, efficient, cost-effective, and ecologically responsive wildlife crossings. In doing so, it hopes to raise international awareness of a need to better reconcile the construction and maintenance of road networks with wildlife movement.

Author(s): ARC
Assessing and Managing the Ecological Impacts of Paved Roads Report5/2005
Full pub available online. Questions examined include: (1) What are appropriate spatial scales for different ecological processes that might be affected by roads? (2) The importance of various ecological models and their appropriateness to the analysis. (3) The applicability of various ecological indicators, such as those recently recommended by the National Research Council. (4) The degree to which the national, regional, and local environmental concerns expressed in such laws as the Endangered Species Act and the Clean Water Act are relevant to the ecological effects of roads.

Author(s): National Academies Press
Assessment of Animal Carcass Disposal Practices of VDOT and Guidance Report3/2010
Report examines cost-efficient options for carcass disposal that result from animal-vehicle collisions. Carcass management methods investigated included on-site burial, disposal facilities, contracts for removal and disposal, incineration units, and composting.

Author(s): Donaldson & Moruza, VA Transportation Research Council
Assessment of the role of interstate highways as barriers to gene flow and Metapopulation persistence in mammals from Indiana Report12/2009
Indiana 2009 Wildlife Diversity Report:
The project goal is to determine whether Indiana interstate highways are restricting the movements of wild mammals of various sizes, which may result in declines of these species due to losses in genetic diversity.

Author(s): Indiana Dept. of Natural Resources
Banff National Park - "Survival on the Move" video Video1/2010
Watch how wolves and bears become a part of a new DNA-mapping study, and see how different species react to the various types of crossing structures. Featuring actual images from the Trans-Canada Highway study.

Author(s): Parks Canada
Banff Wildlife Crossings Project: Integrating Science and Education in Restoring Population Connectivity Across Transportation Corridors Report6/2009
Banff research has amassed the most complete and scientifically sound body of information in the world on how wildlife and populations respond to wildlife crossing mitigation. The research provides a basis from which to assess the effectiveness of wildlife crossing structures and provide recommendations to transportation practitioners and wildlife managers on the environmental and societal benefits of these highway infrastructure investments.

Author(s): Tony Clevenger, Adam Ford, Michael Sawaya
Banking and Conservation 2007: Species and Wetland Mitigation Banking Report6/2006
A cross section of the market analysis, personal perspectives, controversial debates, and glimpses of the future demonstrating the breadth and depth of issues covered at the Ecosystem Marketplace, and a sense of the practical approach to reporting on wetland and species mitigation banking.

Author(s): B. Von Hagen, B. Raffle, J. Scanlon, Ecosystem Marketplace
Bats and Road Construction Report6/2005
The report is intended to give planners, designers, managers of roads info as to how to ensure bats survive in the vicinity of road projects. The info is based on research by bat specialists on roads in Germany and the Netherlands.

Author(s): Road & Hydraulic Engineering Institute, Rijkswaterstaat, Netherlands Public Works Dept.
Beaver trying to cross a highway Video3/2009
Beaver trying to cross a highway on the U.S.-Canada border.
Biography of a Bill: Wildlife Crossing Zones Traffic Safety Bill Podcast2/2010
Lawmakers introduce more than 500 bills in the Colorado state legislature every year. All are the result of long hours of negotiation and compromise. CPR's Megan Verlee follows the Wildlife Crossing Zones Traffic Safety Bill (HB 1238) bill, to see how the whole process works.

Author(s): KCFR Colorado Public Radio
Bison and Roads Website1/2010
Description of buffalo vs. bison, as well as management efforts towards conservation and reintroduction in Canada.

Author(s): Wildlife Collision Prevention Program
Black Bear Mortalities in the Mountain National Parks: 1990-2009 Report1/2010
Black bear mortality records in Canadian Mountain National Parks (Banff, Jasper, Kootenay, Yoho, Waterton Lakes, Mt. Revelstoke, Glacier) over a decade. Efforts combined numerous records into one comprehensive database for improved black bear monitoring.

Author(s): Barbara Bertch & Mike Gibeau, Parks Canada
Blue Highway: Alaska Website6/2009
Stretching 90 miles along Alaska’s Inside Passage, the Lynn Canal is North America’s deepest fjord, and ties the people of Alaska’s “Southeast” together. But for over three decades, the fight over a new highway, a land-based road running alongside the canal, has divided communities and left the future of Lynn Canal in doubt. The documentary "Blue Highway" begins as a kayak trip tracing the historic Lynn Canal travels of John Muir, but becomes a study of both sides of the battle over the proposed Juneau Access Road.

Author(s): Costa del Mar
Blueprint America: Road to the Future Video5/2009
This documentary on the country’s aging and changing infrastructure goes to Denver, New York, and Portland to examine the challenges and possibilities of managing a growing America with innovative transportation and sustainable land use policies.

Author(s): PBS
Bozeman Pass Post-Fencing Wildlife Monitoring Report1/2011
The Bozeman Pass transportation corridor is a corridor for wildlife moving between the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and other habitat. In 2007, wildlife exclusion fencing, jump-outs, and cattle guards were constructed along I-90. Data on wildlife crossings and WVCs were collected before and after construction. Ungulate–vehicle collisions (UVCs) decreased significantly inside the fenced roadway and there has not been an increase in UVC rates at the fence ends. In three years, the reduction in UVCs has resulted in savings that are greater than the cost of installation.

Author(s): WTI-MSU, MDT, FHWA
Bridge Replacements: An Opportunity to Improve Habitat Connectivity Academic Paper
Bridges crossing wildlife movement corridors are often sites of roadkill collisions and habitat fragmentation. Bridges should be extended to span uplands that provide habitat and a movement corridor for terrestrial wildlife. Thousands of bridges are being replaced and rehabilitated across the United States over the next few decades which presents an exceptional opportunity to incorporate design modifications that reestablish or improve habitat connectivity. This paper discusses the number of bridges to be replaced, bridge design, examples, costs, funding sources, and laws pertaining to bridges, wildlife, and wildlife habitat.

Author(s): Laurie Ann Macdonald and Sietske Smith, Defenders
California Essential Habitat Connectivity Project: A Strategy for Conserving a Connected California Website4/2010
The California Dept of Fish and Game and CalTrans commissioned a team to identify large remaining blocks of intact habitat or natural landscape and model linkages between them that need to be maintained, particularly as corridors for wildlife. Over 60 federal, state, local, tribal and NGOs collaborated in the creation of:
1. A statewide wildlife habitat connectivity map using a Geographic Information System (GIS) based modeling approach;
2. An assessment of the biological value of identified connectivity areas; and
3. A strategic plan that helps varied end users interpret and use the statewide map and outlines a methodology necessary for completing connectivity analyses at finer spatial scales.

Author(s): CA Dept. of Fish & Game, CalTrans
California Roadkill Observation System Website8/2009
Web-based system used to report detailed public observations of roadkill in California. The system provides data to different organizations across the state. Information about where wildlife vehicle collisions occur, what animals are involved, and on what kinds of roads are collisions frequent can help inform policy, management, and financial investment in reducing road kill. GIS and statistical modeling is used to predict road kill hotspots, to measure the contributing factors to road kill, to quantify impacts, and to estimate benefits of different remedial actions.

Author(s): UC Davis
Cars, Critters, Culverts Video6/2008
Highways are a major cause of wildlife mortality in the U.S., but the use of tunnels as safe thoroughfares for animals mitigates that threat, while increasing safety for motorists as well. A scenic tour of Montana's roadways with a wildlife biologist who studies roadkill, a highway engineer, and two young activists.

Author(s): Andy Adkins, LifeOnTerra
Caught in the Headlights Film1/2006
Through the voices of six individuals who are intimately familiar with vehicle-wildlife conflicts, the documentary "Caught in the Headlights" is a quirky, informative exploration of automobile culture. 53 minutes.

Author(s): High Plains Films
Citizen, Science, Highways, and Wildlife: Using a Web-based GIS to Engage Citizens in Collecting Wildlife Information Academic Paper1/2006
Road Watch in the Pass is a citizen-science project that engages local citizens in reporting wildlife observations along a 44-km stretch of Highway 3 through Crowsnest Pass in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The numbers of wildlife vehicle collisions and a recent proposal to expand the highway have raised concerns from both human safety and wildlife conservation perspectives. Through the use of a web-based GIS, interested citizens can contribute information that will be instrumental in making final decisions concerning measures to mitigate the effects of highway expansion.

Author(s): Tracy Lee, Michael S. Quinn, and Danah Duke
Climate Change 101: Understanding and Responding to Global Climate Change Reports5/2009
Introduction to climate change -- the reports cover climate science and impacts, adaptation, cap and trade legislation, technological solutions, business solutions, international action, recent action in the U.S. states, action taken by local governments, and an overview summary of all.

Author(s): Pew Center on Global Climate Change
Climate Disruption and Connectivity: Toward a Strategy for Nature Protection Report1/2010
White paper synthesizing the science of global climate change and how it will affect biological diversity. A comprehensive review of the latest scientific literature. Connected networks of protected lands, at the continental scale, are necessary to buffer the impact of climate disruption on biological diversity and to allow for flexibility and adaptation by flora and fauna.

Author(s): Wildlands Network & Barbara Dugelby, Round River Conservation Studies
Coastal Sprawl: The Effects of Urban Design on Aquatic Ecosystems in the U.S. Report1/2002
Population growth, runaway land consumption, dysfunctional suburban development patterns, and exponential growth in automobile use are the engines of pollution and habitat degradation on the coast. Efforts to reform development patterns offer solutions to the coastal management challenge; this report offers strategies and tools for reform.

Author(s): Pew Oceans Commission
Colorado Legislative Conservation Scorecard for 2010 Report6/2010
Colorado Conservation Voters includes HB 1238, the Wildlife Crossing Zones bill, in their annual scorecard for Colorado legislators (see page 9).

Author(s): Colorado Conservation Voters
Colorado State Bill Designating Wildlife Crossing Zones Bill Text5/2010
Text for Colorado House Bill 10-1238 designating wildlife crossing zones on state highways. The bill was sponsored by the Rep. Kathleen Curry and Sen. Gail Schwartz, and allows the Colorado DOT to work with the Colorado DOW and Colorado State Patrol to identify areas where crossing zones are appropriate. Extra signs will be erected in the zones, speed limits will be reduced, and fines will be doubled for violators. The law gives the DOT authority to designate up to 100 miles of state roadways as wildlife crossing zones.
Comment Letter Template to State DOT about Long-Range Transportation Plan Reference11/2010
Template of comment letter from organization or individual to state transportation agency concerning the state's Long-Range Transportation Plan (LRTP). State DOTs usually have a comment period to accept public input on the plan.

Author(s): Defenders of Wildlife
Committee on Ecology and Transportation Newsletter Newsletter9/2009
The TransWild Alliance is featured in this Summer 2009 newsletter of the TRB.

Author(s): Transportation Research Board
Comparison of Methods of Monitoring Wildlife Crossing-Structures on Highways Academic Paper9/2009
The study analyzed efficacy of two noninvasive methods used to monitor wildlife crossing structures used by large mammals: tracking and motion-activated cameras. Fifteen structures were monitored btwn June and October 2007 along the Trans-Canada Highway in Alberta, Canada. Objectives were to determine how species-specific detection rates are biased by the detection method used, to determine factors contributing to crossing-event detection, and to evaluate the most cost-effective approach to monitoring. Crossing-event detection was affected by species, track-pad length, and number of animals using the crossing structure. Cameras are more cost-effective than track-pads for study durations less than 1 year.

Author(s): Adam Ford, Tony Clevenger, Andrew Bennett
Completing a Wildlife Habitat System for the Nation Report9/2010
A statement from the Program Committee of the Wildlife Habitat Policy Research Program.

Author(s): Wildlife Habitat Policy Research Program, NCSE
Conservation in the West Report1/2011
This survey of the attitudes of voters in five western states was conducted in order to examine voters’ attitudes toward a range of conservation and environmental issues. The survey explored how views of conservation relate to perceptions of state government, budget issues, and the economy in each state. The survey was designed to create a benchmark assessment of core beliefs and broad values that relate to conservation. The results of the survey demonstrate that Western voters share broad values when it comes to the environment, despite differing views of state government, budgets, and state leadership. Voters in these five states attach a great deal of importance to having clean water, clean air, natural areas and wildlife as a fundamental ingredient in the good quality of life in their state. Two-thirds of these Western voters view those things as an aspect of life that is fragile and needs to be cared for and protected.

Author(s): Lori Weigel of Public Opinion Strategies, Dave Metz of FM3
Conservation: An Investment That Pays Report7/2009
The Economic Benefits of Parks and Open Space
TPL's goal has been to provide conservation advocates with tools to make the case for conservation as a wise use of the public dollar — an investment rather than a cost. Report is collection of the most pertinent recent studies and news items on the topic.

Author(s): The Trust for Public Land
Conserving Vermon't Natural Heritage Report1/2004
"A Guide to Community-Based Planning for the Conservation of Vermont’s Fish, Wildlife, and Biological Diversity," intended as technical guidance for conservation planning in VT. It provides a process, information, and ideas for how to incorporate fish, wildlife, habitat, natural communities, the landscape, hunting,
fishing, wildlife watching, and working lands into local and regional planning documents, zoning regulations, and other conservation instruments.

Author(s): Vermont Fish and Wildlife Dept. & Agency of Natural Resources
Conserving Wildlife On and Around Maine’s Roads Report5/2007
Road planning and building strategies and wildlife-crossing structures can help make Maine roads less dangerous to wildlife and people. This brochure outlines how Maine’s local planning boards, comprehensive planning committees, local public works departments, regional transportation planning groups, and state transportation agencies can use these strategies to improve and maintain Maine’s wildlife habitats.

Author(s): Beginning with Habitat, Maine Audubon, Maine DOT
Core Connections, Southern Rockies Ecosystem Project Newsletter Newsletter5/2005
This issue includes: Bridging the Gap for Wildlife - Safe Passage Over I-70; Comings and Goings; Rockies Wildlife Crossing Field Course a Great Success; Linking Colorado’s Landscapes in the Field; Transportation Bill Update.

Author(s): Southern Rockies Ecosystem Project (SREP)
Creating a Wildlife Overpass in Nevada Video11/2009
About 60 miles south of Jackpot, NV, a huge concrete arch towers over US Hwy 93. The nearly $2 million project is being paid for with federal stimulus money. When complete, the wildlife overpass will be 166 ft long and over 60 ft wide where it crosses Hwy 93.

Author(s): KMVT11
CREATING CONGESTION: Why Building More Roads Increases Traffic Report
Research has shown that expanding road capacity does not alleviate traffic, and actually increases traffic problems. New Mexico PIRG examines several examples of road projects in the Albuquerque metropolitan area, as well as other states and cities to demonstrate how new roads have not alleviated traffic problems. Instead, building new roads and adding lanes have generated new traffic, which has only made congestion problems worse.
Critter Crossings: Linking Habitats and Reducing Roadkill Website
This DOT/FHWA website describes transportations impacts on wildlife and highlights exemplary projects and processes that are helping to reduce these impacts.
CTE Wildlife Crossings Field Course Video7/2008
The 2008 Wildlife Crossings Field Course was held in Roslyn, WA: overview of the course, plus agenda and presentations. Video of each session offered during the field course is available online by following the Agenda and Presentations link.
Design of Bridges and Culverts for Wildlife Passages at Freshwater Streams Report12/2010
MassDOT anticipates that project planners and designers will use this guidance to evaluate, select, and design stream crossings for conveyance capacity, structural integrity, and wildlife habitat continuity. This document focuses on fish and other wildlife passage at new and replacement bridges and culverts at freshwater streams.

Author(s): Massachusetts Dept. of Transportation (MassDOT)
Developing Effective Highway Crossings for Carnivores and Other Wildlife Website1/2007
Website discussion of and link to 'Safe Passage' publication. 'Safe Passage' includes practical information on tools for connectivity planning, types of wildlife crossings, and design guidelines for carnivores and other wildlife.
Directory of State Departments of Transportation Website
Disney's Highways of the Future Video1/1958
An excerpt from the 1958 Disneyland TV Show episode entitled Magic Highway USA. An exploration into possible future Transportation technologies is made.

Author(s): Disney
Do Wildlife Passages Act As Prey-Traps? Academic Paper1/2002
Literature review to determine if passages used by predators reduce the effectiveness of passages in conserving other forms of wildlife. Most passage studies record no evidence of predation in or around passages, and there is some evidence that predator species use different passages from their prey.

Author(s): Stuart Little, Robert Harcourt, Tony Clevenger
Do’s and Don’ts: What Public Opinion Research Tells Us About Conservation Communications Reference12/2010
Public opinion research conducted over the last several years gives us insights into what works and what needs to be changed about conservation communications. This concise document provides some "dos and don’ts" to follow for a more effective, audience-centered communications effort.

Author(s): The Steve Alexander Group
Don't Veer for Deer! Vehicle/Deer Safety Begins with You Outreach Brochure10/2009
Helpful tips on avoiding deer-vehicle collisions, as well as Michigan state statistics.

Author(s): Michigan Deer Crash Coalition
dotWild: The experts blog for Defenders of Wildlife Blog11/2010
Blog from scientists and policy experts at conservation advocacy organization Defenders of Wildlife.

Author(s): Defenders of Wildlife
Drainage Culverts as Habitat Linkages and Factors Affecting Passage by Mammals Academic Paper1/2001
Culverts are frequent features of road design, but little is known about their effects on wildlife. The authors surveyed several species of small mammal using the culverts and determined that road size, noise and usage affected animal movement. They recommend the frequent use of varying sizes of culverts along with vegetation to link populations across roads.

Author(s): Anthony P. Clevenger, Bryan Chruszcz and Kari Gunson
Driver Safety - Practice Animal Avoidance Reference6/2010
Good example of a document that companies can produce and provide to employees concerning road safety and how to avoid wildlife-vehicle collisions.

Author(s): Jacobs
Ecological Effects of Roads on Amphibians and Reptiles: A Literature Review Academic Paper1/2008
Literature review of use to biologists, engineers, and maintenance professionals wherever roads interact with amphibians and reptiles. Ch. 9 in "Urban Herpetology" publication.

Author(s): Kimberly Andrews, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Denim Jochimsen
Ecological Effects of Roads: Towards Three Summary Indices and an Overview for North America Academic Paper1/1996
Provides an overview of road effects on wildlife and identifies and examines three concepts or indices that may be useful in assessing the diverse and cumulative ecological impacts of roads: road density, road location, and the road-effect zone. Identifies 11 rare and threatened species for which roadkill is a significant factor in population decline; also briefly describes a number of successful wildlife crossing structures.

Author(s): Forman, Friedman, Fitzhenry, Martin, Chen, Alexander
Effectiveness of Wildlife Underpasses and Fencing to Reduce Wildlife–Vehicle Collisions Academic Paper11/2010
Authors used camera and track surveys to evaluate wildlife use before and after construction of 3 wildlife underpasses and fencing on a new section of US Hwy 64 in NC. White-tailed deer use of underpass areas averaged 6.7 times greater after the new highway and underpasses were completed. Within fenced highway segments, mortalities were lowest near underpasses and increased with distance from the underpasses. The new section of Hwy 64 experienced approximately 58 fewer wildlife mortalities, suggesting underpasses and fencing reduced the number of deer–vehicle collisions.

Author(s): Matthew McCollister
Effects of Paved Roads on Birds: A Literature Review and Recommendations for the Yellowstone to Yukon Ecoregion Report3/2011
Y2Y commissioned a report to investigate the effects of paved roads and traffic on birds. It concluded that many bird species avoid roaded habitats for some part of their life cycle. Traffic volume and noise, as well as vehicle collisions, affect breeding populations. Birds have a high diversity of niches and serve as valuable indicators of environmental conditions. In North America, at least 20 "common" species have lost more than 50 of their continental population, and more than half of neotropical migrant species populations have declined in the past four decades. Paved roads are a pervasive feature on the landscape and their ecological effects on vertebrate wildlife have been well documented. The Y2Y Initiative Society has developed an avian conservation strategy that uses 20 focal species to represent the needs of 109 species of concern in the region. Data were obtained on bird distributions and were used to identify avian biodiversity hotspots and habitat associations of focal species.

Author(s): Angela Kociolek, Anthony Clevenger
Effects of Roads and Traffic on Wildlife Populations and Landscape Function Academic Papers9/2009
“Effects of Roads on Animal Abundance: an Empirical Review and Synthesis”
“Quantifying the Road-Effect Zone: Threshold Effects of a Motorway on Anuran Populations in Ontario, Canada”
“Frogs Call at a Higher Pitch in Traffic Noise”
“Road Zone Effects in Small-Mammal Communities”
“Impacts of Traffic Noise and Traffic Volume on Birds of Roadside Habitats”
“Integration of Regional Mitigation Assessment and Conservation Planning”
“Wildlife Tunnel Enhances Population Viability”
“Can Road-Crossing Structures Improve Population Viability of an Urban Gliding Mammal?”
“Cost–Benefit Analyses of Mitigation Measures Aimed at Reducing Collisions with Large Ungulates in the United States and Canada: a Decision Support Tool”
“Reducing Moose–Vehicle Collisions through Salt Pool Removal and Displacement: an Agent-Based Modeling Approach”

Author(s): Ecology and Society
Elk Crossing Road as Part of Huge Elk Migration Video11/2009
Large elk migration in Estes Park, CO.
Elk Crossing Road in Estes Park, CO Video9/2008
Many elk crossing road and bugling in Estes Park, CO.
Elk Jumping Wrong Way Up Escape Ramp - Video Video8/2009
AZ has been monitoring elk escape ramps for several years including ramps that were too low and were raised incrementally, monitoring with video cameras. It appears that ramps raised to a level which elk cannot easily see over works the best. AZ Game & Fish Dept. took raised ramps by 6 inches and solved the problem, allowing elk to use them only in the proper direction.

Author(s): Arizona Game & Fish Department
Enhancing Wetlands and Watersheds Using Wetland Banking, Land Trusts and Preservation Within Transportation Mitigation Academic Paper4/2005
An analysis of the North Carolina Ecosystem Enhancement Program.

Author(s): Marta Anderson, John F. Kennedy School of Governme
Environmental Corridor Management NCHRP 2525/63 Report6/2010
The Roadside Environmental Management section contains examples of best practices from several states on fish passage projects, as well as cooperative agreements and shared data between state DOTs and resource/wildlife agencies. Section 4.3.8 discusses how habitat connectivity is addressed in State Wildlife Action Plans (SWAPs), plus case studies from specific states on mitigation for wildlife-vehicle collisions and preventing habitat fragmentation.

Author(s): AASHTO
Environmental Review Toolkit Homepage Website2/2009
This DOT/FHWA website provides information and resources for topics on the environment and transportation -- featuring program overviews, helpful guidance documents, and effective practices involved in the NEPA process, including a Section 4(f) topic area.

Author(s): Federal Highway Administration
European Commission Conference on Green Infrastructure Implementation Conference Proceedings11/2010
Proceedings of European Commission Conference on Green Infrastructure Implementation held in Brussels on Nov. 19, 2010. Objectives were to share views and discuss the state of Green Infrastructure implementation in Europe, to identify gaps in implementation, to highlight the strong linkages to climate change adaptation and mitigation and to other relevant policies, as well as to share good practices and lessons learned in order to work towards a common understanding and guidelines to go forward.

Author(s): European Commission - Environment
Evaluation of the Use and Effectiveness Of Wildlife Crossings - NCHRP 25-27 Report9/2007
TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 615: Evaluation of the Use and Effectiveness of Wildlife Crossings has led to the development of an interactive, web-based decision guide protocol for the selection, configuration, and location of wildlife crossings. The decision tool as outlined in the report can be found on the web at or

Author(s): National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board of The National Academies
Evaluation of Wildlife Crossing Structures and Fencing on US Highway 93 Evaro to Polson - Phase I: Preconstruction Data Collection and Finalization of Evaluation Plan Report12/2006
The reconstruction US Highway 93 on the Flathead Indian Reservation in northwestern Montana provides an opportunity to evaluate how wildlife crossing structures and wildlife fencing affect animal-vehicle collisions and wildlife movements Reconstruction will include installations of 42 fish and wildlife crossing structures and approximately 15 miles of wildlife fences.

Author(s): Montana Department of Transportation
Evidence that a Highway Reduces Apparent Survival Rates of Squirrel Gliders Academic Paper1/2010
In southeast Australia, much of the remaining habitat for the squirrel glider is located in narrow strips of Eucalyptus woodland that is adjacent to roads and streams, as well as in small patches of woodland vegetation that is farther from roads. This study evaluated the effect of traffic volume on squirrel gliders by estimating apparent annual survival rates of adults along the Hume Freeway and nearby low-traffic-volume roads. The apparent annual survival rate of adult squirrel gliders living along the Hume Freeway was estimated to be approximately 60 lower than for squirrel gliders living near local roads.

Author(s): S.C. McCall, M.A. McCarthy, R. van der Ree, .J. Harper, S. Cesarini, K. Soanes, Ecology and Society
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Wildlife Underpasses in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada Academic Paper2/2000
This study focused on the effect of wildlife underpasses in Banff National Park on several species of large mammals to determine how effective this strategy is at linking populations across highways.

Author(s): Anthony P. Clevenger and Nigel Waltho
FHWA Eco-Logical Environmental Review Toolkit Website1/2011
"Eco-Logical: An Ecosystem Approach to Developing Infrastructure Projects" was developed by a team of representatives from eight Federal agencies and the DOTs for four States. Eco-Logical articulates a vision of how infrastructure development and ecosystem conservation can be integrated to harmonize economic, environmental, and social needs and objectives. The website includes the publication, a webinar, and info on projects around the U.S. that are supported by the grants program.
FHWA STEP 2008 Accomplishments Fact Sheet Reference6/2009
FHWA's Office of Planning, Environment and Realty (HEP) uses STEP funding to conduct research and develop tools and technologies to advance the state of the practice regarding national environment, planning and realty research initiatives. FHWA uses stakeholder input to help identify and prioritize STEP research topics, develop and implement the national research agenda. The FHWA funded 52 projects in FY2008, including 39 studies, 69 outreach events and the publication of 24 reports.

Author(s): FHWA Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)
Finding Biological Information on the Web with Raptor Training3/2010
The National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) of USGS has created Raptor, a service for use by the wider conservation community, providing functions not available from other search engines. Raptor is based on the Velocity software from Vivisimo, Inc., which covers NBII’s websites, resource catalog and other indexed websites. It features relevance-ranking, and conceptual "clustering" of search results based on terms that occur with high frequency throughout all results of a query. It also offers suggestions of alternative and additional terms for any given search; integration with the NBII's Library of Images from the Environment (LIFE), and the ability to limit a search to one or several specific data/information sources, at the user's specification.
A Raptor Webinar is available to introduce use of this powerful search tool.

Author(s): USGS
Flexibility in Highway Design Book
Produced by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), this book helps designers faced with the task of balancing the need for the highway improvement with the need to safely integrate the design into the surrounding natural and human environments.
Flooding in Vermont Forces Wildlife onto Roads Video5/2011
The Vermont Agency of Transportation and Vermont Dept. of Fish and Wildlife are noticing an increase in the amount of roadkill along waterlogged roadways, especially Route 2, Route 78, U.S. 104 and 15. AOT is working to get a wildlife crossing sign put in near the causeway on Route 2.

Author(s): WPTZ 5 News
Floods Wash Out Road and Culvert Video8/2008
An undersized culvert resulted in flooding in Freeport, ME, which eventually washes out an entire road!

Author(s): WMTW - Kevyn Fowler
Flying Squirrels Using Crossing Structures in North Carolina Video10/2010
An endangered Carolina Northern flying squirrel uses a crossing structure to glide to the other side of the wide Cherohala Skyway in western North Carolina. NCDOT, USFS, Duke Energy, FWS, and NCWRC worked together to construct the wooden poles and designate movement corridors along the Skyway.

Author(s): NC Wildlife Resources Commission
Freedom to Roam Multimedia Presentation Video8/2009
The presentation that Rick Ridgeway of Freedom to Roam gave at the International Conference on Ecology & Transportation (ICOET) 2009.

Author(s): Freedom to Roam
Freeport, ME Road Collapse Video8/2008
News 8 chief photojournalist Kevyn Fowler captured a road collapsing in Freeport, Maine during a storm.

Author(s): Kevyn Fowler, News 8
French Wildlife Crossings Video11/2006
Because this can’t happen, French highway service provides safe passage for wildlife.

Author(s): ASFA
Funding Sources for Transportation Research: Competitive Programs Website2/2009
This Transportation Research Board website helps the transportation community access research programs more efficiently by attempting to answer your questions: Where can I find funding? Who is conducting research in my area of interest? Where do I find the cutting-edge research products?

Author(s): Transportation Research Board
GAP Analysis Program Land Cover Viewer Website6/2010
The GAP national land cover viewer displays data on the vegetation and land use patterns of the continental U.S., and is based on the NatureServe Ecological Systems Classification. This is the most detailed national vegetation U.S. land-cover map to date, and will enable conservation professionals to identify places in the country with sufficient habitat to support wildlife.

Author(s): USGS
Getting Back on Track: Climate Change and State Transportation Policy Report12/2010
This report examines what states are doing to curb emissions caused by transportation, and is the first report to compare state transportation policy as it affects greenhouse gas emissions and compare performance across all states. The full report and a summary are available.

Author(s): National Resources Defense Council, Smart Growth America
GIS-Generated, Expert-Based Models for Identifying Wildlife Habitat Linkages and Planning Mitigation Passages Academic Paper4/2002
Three black bear habitat models were developed to determine linkage areas across a major transportation corridor. One was based on empirical data, the second was based on expert literature, and the final one was based on scientific opinion. These were compared with empirical evidence to determine the effectiveness of each. This would give transportation planners and idea of the best method to use when selecting appropriate sites for mitigation.

Author(s): Anthony P. Clevenger, Jack Wierzchowski, Bryan Chruszcz and Kari Gunson
Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States Report1/2009
The report includes discussions of climate change impacts by sector: Water Resources, Transportation, Ecosystems, Agriculture, Society, Human Health, Energy Supply and Use. Regional impacts within the U.S. are identified, and brochures/factsheets are available.

Author(s): US Global Change Research Program
Gold Creek Witness for Wildlife in Washington State Video4/2010
The Gold Creek wildlife corridor is vital for connecting habitat for animals moving north to south in the Cascades of Washington state, and near Snoqualmie Pass a major underpass is being built for wildlife to move safely past I-90. Conservation Northwest is restoring Gold Creek habitat and using citizen science, remote cameras, and winter tracking, to document local wildlife movement.

Author(s): Conservation Northwest
Green Infrastructure Principles and Planning Tools Presentation4/2009
Overview of green infrastructure planning, ecosystem services, ecological principles, and maps and planning applications.

Author(s): Virginia's Green Infrastructure Center
Greening the Crossroads: A Green Infrastructure Vision for Central Indiana Report4/2010
Describes the green infrastructure concept (habitat connectivity), the planning process of leadership forums with transportation and wildlife professionals, public input sessions, network design, implementation of the plan, and measurements of success -- for a study region of nine counties in Central Indiana.

Author(s): The Conservation Fund & Central Indiana Land Trust
Guide to Seeking Transportation Enhancement Program Funds Report9/2001
Guide to Seeking TE Program Funds In Partnership With State and Local Governments

Provides background and explanation of Transportation Enhancements, along with a description of the process, politics, cooperative agreements, checklist, and gives website links for more info.
Guidelines for Culvert Construction to Accomodate Fish and Wildlife Movement and Passage Report11/2006
General guidelines to assist in the design, planning, and placement of culverts to minimize impacts to and ensure fish and wildlife passage and movement. Includes recommendations for types of structures used to accommodate large, medium, and small mammals, bats, amphibians and reptiles, fish, multiple animal type use, and post-construction monitoring.

Author(s): AZ Game & Fish Dept., Habitat Branch
Habitat and Highways: Ten Years on the Road Video9/2010
A decade ago, Defenders of Wildlife recognized the importance and urgency of addressing the impacts of roads and highways on wildlife and habitat. As the Habitat and Highways program marks its tenth year, they celebrate the many victories.

Author(s): Defenders of Wildlife
Habitat Corridors and Landscape Connectivity: Clarifying the Terminology Report7/2009
By Katie Meiklejohn, Rob Ament, Gary Tabor
Confusion about how best to implement connectivity and employ habitat corridors on the ground stems from a lack of clarity about what we mean when we talk about protecting ‘corridors’ and ‘landscape connectivity.’ A literature review was conducted to gain a better understanding of the terminology pertinent to landscape connectivity, by attempting to synthesize the various uses of each term.

Author(s): Center for Large Landscape Conservation
Harbor Boulevard Wildlife Underpass Photos - Los Angeles, CA Website4/2009
A biodiversity hotspot for a number of flora and fauna in southern Los Angeles County is bisected by 4-lane Harbor Boulevard. A wildlife underpass was constructed in 2006 to mitigate wildlife mortality.
The underpass received a $901,000 TE grant through the MTA award process and an additional $337,000 in TE funds from the statewide pool.

Author(s): Natl. Transportation Enhancements Clearinghouse
Hearing: High Priority Project Program Hearing Summary4/2009
The Subcommittee on Highways and Transit held a hearing to discuss specific High Priority Project requests of Members of Congress. The hearing was an opportunity for Members to provide information about the type, location, total cost, and benefits of the HPPs that they will request in the upcoming authorization.

Author(s): U.S. House Transportation & Infrastructure Committee
Hearing: Recovery Act 10-Week Progress Report for Transportation and Infrastructure Programs Hearing Summary4/2009
The Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure held a hearing to examine progress to date on implementing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The hearing addressed implementation efforts in programs across the Committee's jurisdictions, including highways, bridges, public transportation, rail, aviation, waterway, flood control, water resource development, wastewater treatement facilities, hazardous waste clean-ups, economic development, and Federal buildings.

Author(s): House Transportation & Infrastructure Committee
Hearing: The Future of National Surface Transportation Policy Hearing Summary4/2009
Surface Transportation and Merchant Marine Infrastructure, Safety, and Security Subcommittee hearing on The Future of National Surface Transportation Policy.

Author(s): U.S. House Committee on Commerce, Science, & Transportation
Highway 3 Transportation Corridor: Wildlife Management and Mitigation Assessment Project Report7/2010
The Highway 3 transportation corridor bisects the Yellowstone to Yukon region and is a significant barrier to wildlife connectivity in the Rocky Mountain Cordillera. Maintaining wildlife movement through the region and across the Hwy 3 corridor requires signage, fencing, overpasses and underpasses. Unabridged and short reports are available.

Author(s): Western Transportation Institute
Highway Effects on Wildlife Distribution in Calakmul and Balam-Ku, Mexico Video3/2010
The Calakmul Biosphere Reserve and the ecological zone of Balam-Ku comprise more than 11,000 km of well preserved jungle. These protected area contain, among other wildlife, almost 100 species of mammals, each one with a particular geographic scale to the movements. Many of these species are under protected status, largely classified as threatened or endangered.

Author(s): EASAC
Highway Median Impacts on Wildlife Movement and Mortality Report10/2006
State of the practice survey and gap analysis report prepared for Caltrans, to assess effects of median barrier projects on wildlife movements and mortality.

Author(s): Anthony Clevenger and Angela Kociolek, WTI
Highway mitigation fencing reduces wildlife-vehicle collisions Academic Paper3/2001
Impacts of roads on wildlife species are well documented. Although roads have some wildlife benefits, providing habitats for plants and travel corridors, they also can create movement barriers, fragment habitat, and cause significant mortality. This study assessing the efficacy of highway fencing at reducing wildlfie mortality.

Author(s): Anthony P. Clevenger, Bryan Chruszcz and Kari Gunson
Highways and Habitats: Managing Habitat Connectivity and Landscape Permeability for Wildlife Report1/2006
This Pacific Northwest Research Station nontechnical publication describe the highways and landscape permeability work that Peter Singleton has done over several years, including the work Interstate 90.

Author(s): Jonathan Thompson, USDA Pacific NW Research Station
House Hearing on Climate in Transportation Infrastructure - March 31, 2009 Hearing Summary3/2009
A print summary and video recording of the March 31, 2009 hearing of the House Committee on Science & Technology, Subcommittee on Technology & Innovation.
Full Committee hearing entitled, “The Role of Research in Addressing Climate in Transportation Infrastructure.”

Author(s): U.S. House Committee on Science & Technology
House Transportation Planning Hearing - January 27, 2009 Hearing Summary1/2009
A print summary and video recording of the January 27, 2009 hearing of the House Transportation Committee. The meeting addressed the issue of energy reduction and environmental sustainability in surface transportation, and is intended to help guide the reauthorization of federal surface transportation programs under SAFETEA-LU, which expires on September 20, 2009.

Author(s): U.S. House Transportation Committee
House Transportation Planning Hearing - September 18, 2008 Hearing Summary9/2008
A print summary and video recording of the Sept. 18, 2008, hearing of the House Transportation Committee. The meeting addressed the issue of transportation planning and is intended to help guide the development of next year's Transportation Bill.

Author(s): U.S. House Transportation Committee
How Solar Energy Can Help Meet America’s Growing Energy Needs Website7/2008
Proceedings from a briefing to Congress by The Optical Society of America and the Environmental and Energy Study Institute on how solar energy can meet America's needs
How to Avoid a Moose or Deer Collision Resource1/2009
Every year, moose and deer collisions are all too prevalent on North American and Northern European roads. Colliding with these animals is potentially fatal. These are suggestions for avoiding collisions in the first place.

Author(s): WikiHow
I-70 Wildlife Watch Website1/2009
Citizen-science based wildlife monitoring program giving the public the opportunity to report wildlife and roadkill sightings along I-70 between Golden and Glenwood Springs, CO.

Author(s): Center for Native Ecosystems, Eco-resolutions
I-90 Snoqualmie Pass East Project Final Environmental Impact Statement Report8/2008
Interstate 90 is a transportation corridor linking Puget Sound to eastern Washington. The I-90 traveler may experience congestion, delays due to avalanche closures, rough pavement conditions, rock slide activity and wildlife collisions. WSDOT is expanding I-90, and the EIS outlines improvements to meet projected traffic demands, improve public safety, and meet project needs along a 15 mile stretch. Final EIS listed by downloadable chapters.

Author(s): Washington State DOT
I-90 Snoqualmie Past East Project: Burl the Squirrel Activity Book Activity Book10/2008
"Burl the Squirrel" lives outside the I-90 Snoqualmie Pass East Project office. Burl inspired the I-90 communications team to developed a cartoon character to educate children about the importance of the I-90 Snoqualmie Pass East Project.

Author(s): Washington State DOT
I-90 Wildlife Watch Website10/2010
Citizen-based wildlife monitoring project that invites motorists to report wildlife and roadkill sightings along I-90 in the Snoqualmie Pass region of Washington state.

Author(s): I-90 Wildlife Bridges Coalition, WTI, WSDOT, Conservation Northwest
Identifying the Best Locations Along Highways to Provide Safe Crossing Opportunities for Wildlife Academic Paper8/2003
Providing mid- and large-sized mammals with safe opportunities to cross roadways can reduce the impacts of highways on wildlife. To maximize effectiveness, this type of mitigation must be placed in locations where animals naturally approach and cross the highway. This study suggests that both the design of a highway and its placement in the landscape should be considered when creating mitigation projects to help wildlife safely cross a highway.

Author(s): Sarah A. Barnum, M.S., Ph.D.
Highways have been shown to fragment wildlife habitats and populations. In order to
mitigate the effects that highways have on wildlife, it is important to assess where
wildlife appear to be moving in close proximity to the highway. I surveyed for wildlife
trails that approached either side of a ~64 km stretch U.S. Highway 2 (US-2) and
monitored these trails with remote cameras. Ungulates, especially deer, were the most
commonly photographed animals on trails. A limited number of photographs were also
taken of coyote, black bear, snowshoe hare, wolf, and cougar. Camera images showed
that wildlife tended to use roadside trails during hours of lower traffic volumes. I used
multiple logistic regression at three scales (50 m, 250 m, and 500 m) followed by model
selection with Akaike’s Information Criterion to assess the impacts of certain
landscape features on the location of wildlife trails (used) versus randomly generated
points (unused). I examined the clustering of wildlife trails and found them to be
clustered at all distance scales less than 39 km—with the strongest clustering occurring
at the 5-8 km scales. The 5 km segment of highway with the highest density of trails
was located from Milepost (MP) 181-184. Crossing zones were delineated based on a
combination of the number of trails, previously identified wildlife crossings, camera
incidents-per-day, potential parcels of land for conservation, and highway and railroad
structures in a given area (usually a 5 km segment). The results of this study may serve
as useful baseline information to the Great Northern Environmental Stewardship Area
working group (GNESA) and its partners to help guide future research and mitigation
projects in the US-2 corridor.

Incidence of Intentional Vehicle–Reptile Collisions Academic Paper5/2007
The impact of vehicles on certain reptile species is well documented and population consequences of associated mortality from collisions with vehicles can be significant. This study tested the possibility that many such collisions are intentionally caused by humans and found that a significant number of fake snakes and turtles were targeted by drivers. This is useful when considering the need for future mitigation projects to benefit herpetofauna.

Author(s): E. P. Ashley, et al.
Influence of Roads on the Florida Panther Academic Paper4/2006
The goal of the study was to determine the influence of roads on the movement patterns of the Florida panther. Panther telemetry data from 1981 until 2003 was used, as well as detailed road networks and vegetation maps. The influence of roads on individual panthers was determined through an analysis of: 1) vehicular mortality; 2) road crossing behavior; 3) road barrier effects; and 4) effectiveness of preventative measures.

Author(s): Autumn Schwab
Infra Eco Network Europe (IENE) Website6/2009
IENE is an initiative for creating a transport infrastructure that harmonizes with the surrounding landscape. The goal is to promote a safe and sustainable pan-European transport infrastructure through recommending measures and planning procedures to conserve biodiversity, counteract landscape fragmentation, and reduce vehicular accidents and wildlife casualties. Some areas of focus are: connecting habitats; counteracting landscape fragmentation; ecological infrastructure; conserving biodiversity; reducing wildlife casualties; providing ecoducts.
Proceedings from the first international IENE conference, held Sept. 27 – Oct. 1, 2010 in Velence, Hungary, can be found on the website.

Author(s): IENE
Integrating Transportation Planning and NEPA Decision-Making Video9/2008
Video and PowerPoint addressing transportation planning and NEPA Decision-Making concepts, presented by planning, environmental, and engineering professionals. Explores incorporating environmental issues during transportation systems and corridor planning.

Author(s): AASHTO Center for Environmental Excellence
Interactions Between Roadways and Wildlife Ecology Report1/2002
A Synthesis of Highway Practice
Report summarizing the effects of roads on wildlife.

Author(s): Transportation Research Board
International Conference on Ecology & Transportation Website
Investigation of Deer-Vehicle Crash Data and Countermeasure Implementation in Texas Report2/2008
Report sponsored by the Texas Transportation Institute at Texas A&M University. The project investigated the status of DVC data and countermeasure implementation in Texas; two meetings on the subject were sponsored.

Author(s): Keith Knapp
Iosis on the road in Finland Video10/2007
Keeping It Simple: Easy Ways to Help Wildlife Along Roads Website
Key Practices for Implementing Geospatial Technologies for a Planning and Environmental Linkages (PEL) Approach Report7/2008
A July 2008 report on the potential for GIS use to create comprehensive planning that accounts for both transportation and environmental goals.

Author(s): U.S. Department of Transportation
Killer Roads Article from Defenders Magazine3/2002
The impact of roads and highways on wildlife, including the destruction and fragmentation of habitat. The author weaves into the article a personal experience of the emotional toll of bearing witness to roadkill.

Author(s): Susan Cerulean
Land Use and Driving: The Role Compact Development Can Play in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report1/2010
Link to download full report.
Three recent publications, "Moving Cooler", "Growing Cooler", and "Driving and the Built Environment", document and attempt to quantify the effectiveness of compact development as a tool to reduce GHG emissions. Compact development offers a host of benefits, from providing more walkable, livable, healthy communities to saving on regional infrastructure costs. Based on exhaustive analyses of urban planning research and the formulation of new scenario-based models, the publications all find that, compared to historically sprawling land use patterns, compact development reduces driving and GHG emissions over time.

Author(s): Urban Land Institute
Large Landscape Conservation: A Strategic Framework for Policy and Action Report1/2010
In response to increasing activity at the large landscape scale, leaders from the public, private, and NGO sectors participated in two national policy dialogues in 2009. Convened by the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy and the Center for Natural Resources and Environmental Policy at The University of Montana, the dialogue participants synthesized what we know about large landscape conservation and identified the most important needs.

Author(s): M. McKinney, L. Scarlett, D. Kemmis
Linking Environmental Resource and Transportation Planning Report12/2008
The study, based on a literature review, survey, and interviews with practitioners, shows that both transportation and conservation agencies are actively engaged in building interdisciplinary, collaborative approaches to project development in the early stages of planning.

Author(s): National Cooperative Highway Research Program
Literature Synthesis of the Effects of Roads and Vehicles on Amphibians and Reptiles Report10/2006
This FHWA report summarizes the ongoing work on the behavioral, physiological and ecological effects of roads and vehicles on reptiles and amphibians. This includes the direct effects of injury and death as well as the indirect impact roads have on habitat, population dynamics, and dispersal.

Author(s): Kimberly Andrews, Whitfield Gibbons, and Denim Jochimsen
Losing Ground: At What Cost? Report1/2003
Changes in Land Use and Their Impact on Habitat, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services in Massachusetts. This Mass Audubon report discusses the changing land use patterns in Massachusetts and their impact on habitat, biodiversity and ecosystem services.

Author(s): Kevin Breunig, Mass Audubon
Maine Audubon Wildlife Road Watch Website6/2010
Includes a web-based map and database for the public to record observations of road-side and road-killed wildlife in Maine. Info added by citizen scientists about where wildlife attempt to cross roads, what animals are involved, and on what kinds of roads are collisions frequent can help inform policy, management, and investment in reducing roadkill and habitat fragmentation. By creating an account, you can contribute your own observations, as well as browse the online wildlife observations map.

Author(s): Maine Audubon
Making Your Presentation Stick Reference10/2008
From the authors of “Made to Stick,” this 4-page guide to presentations will have your audience coming away with your points. The authors believe that there are a few basic rules that should govern any kind of presentation.

Author(s): Chip Heath
Management Considerations for Designing Carnivore Highway Crossings Report12/2005
A paper prepared by Bill Ruediger for the Southwest Carnivore Committee Meeting in Tuscon, Arizona in December 2005.

Author(s): Bill Ruediger
Managing Environmental Impacts of Linear Corridors and Infrastructure Report11/2007
A summary of a conference held November 7-8, 2007, in Revelstoke, British Columbia. Includes abstracts of presentations.
Massachusetts River and Stream Crossing Standards Report3/2006
Info about fish and wildlife passage requirements, culvert design standards, and methodologies for evaluating barriers to fish and wildlife passage. Info used to develop performance standards for culverts and other stream crossing structures.

Author(s): River and Stream Continuity Partnership
Measuring the Health Effects of Sprawl: A National Analysis of Physical Activity, Obesity and Chronic Disease Report
This report from Smart Growth America and the Surface Transportation Policy Project presents the first national study to show that people who live in counties marked by sprawl-style development tend to weigh more, are more likely to be obese and are more likely to suffer from high blood pressure.

Author(s): Barbara A. McCann, Reid Ewing
Methods to Reduce Traffic Crashes Involving Deer Report10/2003
Article concerning research and recommendations to reduce deer/vehicle collisions.

Author(s): Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
Milepost 314 Video3/2006
What happens when man-made barriers artificially divide a natural ecosystem? At Milepost 314, off of I-90 in Montana, April Craighead is pioneering efforts to minimize the costs to both humans and the larger ecoysystem.

Author(s): Anne Devereux, LifeOnTerra
Moving Cooler: Transportation Policies for Reducing GHG Emissions Report7/2009
Moving Cooler is a study commissioned by various agencies and interest groups who want to know the facts about different strategies to reduce GHGs from transportation. The report addresses strategies affecting transportation that would reduce the overall amount of vehicle travel or improve fuel efficiency.

Author(s): Urban Land Institute
Moving Toward Climate Change Adaptation Report10/2010
The Promise of the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative for addressing
the Region’s Vulnerabilities.
The report is an up-to-date review of the extent to which climate change is occurring in the Y2Y region, and to assess the appropriateness of the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative’s vision and programs as a response to climate disruption. Connectivity conservation can be viewed as an opportunity to realize climate adaptation management on the most fundamental level, because connectivity
furthers resilience, and resilience—nature’s ability to avoid systemic changes as a
consequence of disturbance—means survival for ecological systems.

Author(s): Y2Y: L. Graumlich & W. Francis
National Transportation Enhancements Clearinghouse Website
The National Transportation Enhancements Clearinghouse (NTEC) is an information service sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration and Rails-to-Trails Conservancy. It provides professionals, policy-makers, and citizens with timely and accurate information necessary to make well-informed decisions about transportation enhancements.
Natural Capital Project - Toolbox Website10/2008
Developed by the Woods Institute for the Environment at Stanford University, The Nature Conservancy, and the World Wildlife Fund, the Natural Capital Project provides those working in conservation with a set of tools to affect decisions such as land preservation and infrastructure planning.

Author(s): The Woods Institute for the Environment
New Approaches to Ecological Surveys Report12/2009
TRB NCHRP Synthesis 400 Report: A Synthesis of Highway Practice
Synthesis objectives were to survey transportation and natural resource professionals familiar with transportation systems to identify ecological survey needs related to transportation activities and to identify technologies, techniques, and innovative methods to fulfill those needs. Synthesis based on an 2008 e-mail survey sent to all state DOTs and state fish and wildlife agencies, and concurrent literature and new initiatives searches.

Author(s): Patricia Cramer, Utah State University
New Effort to Prevent Elk Collisions in Washington State Video2/2010
They often begin and end their day north of I-90, but spend much of their time grazing on the south side. How the growing North Bend elk herd gets back and forth is a major concern of state agencies and wildlife groups. This spring, members of Conservation Northwest will again mount motion-controlled cameras along preferred elk routes to see how they get across and what can be done to make it easier.

Author(s): KING5 News
Ontario Road Ecology Group Wildlife Sightings collection Website1/2010
Database of roadkill observations in Ontario used to better understand the interactions between animals and roads, and to help identify 'hotspots' where mitigation methods are needed.

Author(s): Ontario Road Ecology Group
Our Built and Natural Environments: A Technical Review of the Interactions Between Land Use, Transportation, and Environmental Quality Book1/2001
Interest has grown in Smart Growth as a mechanism for improving environmental quality. In this book, the EPA summarizes technical research on the relationship between the built and natural environments, as well as current understanding of the role of development patterns, urban design, and transportation in improving environmental quality.

Author(s): Enivronmental Protection Agency
Our Nation’s Wildlife Habitats Report9/2010
Completing an integrated system for conserving their values and benefits in a changing world.
This report presents recommendations from the 12-member Program Committee for creating a wildlife habitat system for the nation. The recommendations are supported by four years of focused research designed to define the scope, scale, and challenges to completing a system. The report includes specific findings from Program-sponsored research and conferences, and reflects the Committee’s judgments about the significance of the research results for wildlife conservation efforts.

Author(s): Wildlife Habitat Policy Research Program, NCSE
Piloting a Non-Invasive Genetic Sampling Method for Evaluating Population-Level Benefits of Wildlife Crossing Structures Academic Paper1/2010
To assess whether wildlife crossing structures provide benefits to enhance the viability of wildlife populations, studies need to determine the number of individuals using crossings, their sex, and their genetic relationships -- molecular techniques now make this possible from hair samples collected through non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS). Authors tested the feasibility of a prototype NGS system designed to sample hair from black bears and grizzly bears, as well as non-target carnivore species, at two wildlife underpasses.

Author(s): Anthony Clevenger and Michael Sawaya
Planners Energy and Climate Database Website4/2009
Provides examples of communities that have taken steps to integrate energy and climate change issues into planning, states that have addressed climate change issues in plans or policies, and other relevant documents to help planners understand and address energy and climate change.

Author(s): American Planning Association & Environmental and Energy Study Institute
Potential Impacts of Climate Change on U.S. Transportation Report1/2008
The report identifies potential impacts of climate change on U.S. transportation and adaptation options, and offers recommendations for both research and actions that can be taken to prepare for climate change.

Author(s): Transportation Research Board
Potential Wildlife Crossing Structures at Avra Valley / I-10 Report6/2009
The Coalition for Sonoran Desert Protection produced artist renderings of possible crossing structures over and under I-10 at Avra Valley Rd. These renderings have helped stakeholders move forward with the planning process for enhancing the functionality of the crossing point and preserving the linkage as a whole. This poster highlights the Avra Valley Rd crossing point with additional background information on wildlife linkages in Pima County.

Author(s): Coalition for Sonoran Desert Protection
Preacher Canyon Wildlife Fence and Crosswalk Enhancement Project Evaluation Report2/2010
Project evaluated 2.5 mi of retrofit fencing using 3 different designs integrated with a RADS intended to reduce WVCs while maintaining permeability across AZ SR 260. ROW fence modifications to raise the existing fence were installed to funnel wildlife to two wildlife underpasses and a bridge.

Author(s): AZ Game & Fish Dept.
Precious Heritage: The Status of Biodiversity in the United States Book2/2000
Precious Heritage draws together a quarter century of information on U.S. biodiversity developed by natural heritage programs from across the country. This volume not only documents those aspects of U.S. biodiversity that are particularly noteworthy, but also considers how our species and ecosystems are faring, what is threatening them, and what is needed to protect the nations remaining natural inheritance.

Author(s): Bruce A. Stein, Lynn S. Kutner, Jonathan S. Adams
Presentations from 9th Annual New Partners for Smart Growth Conference Website2/2010
Conference session presentations accessible from the "9th Annual New Partners for Smart Growth: Building Safe, Healthy and Livable Communities" conference held in Seattle, WA on Feb. 4-6, 2010.

Author(s): New Partners for Smart Growth
Presentations from Sept 2008 TRB Conference Report11/2008
Presentations from the September 2008 Transportation Research Board Conference on Meeting Federal Surface Transportation Requirements in Statewide and Metropolitan Transportation Planning

* Click on specific names to access their presentations.

Author(s): Transportation Research Board
Primer on Transportation and Climate Change Report4/2008
Part I: summarizes the current state of scientific knowledge concerning the causes and impacts of climate change
Part II: provides an introduction to climate change policy issues
Part III: discusses trends in GHG emissions from road transportation
Part IV: reviews potential measures to reduce GHG emissions from road transportation
Part V: identifies issues for further research
Reference Materials: includes a list of major studies and other published reports on climate change and transportation

Author(s): AASHTO
Project Noah Website1/2011
Project Noah is a tool to explore and document wildlife and a platform to harness the power of citizen scientists everywhere.

Author(s): NYU’s Interactive Telecommunications Program, National Geographic
Projects and Paychecks: Wyoming on the Road to Recovery Newsletter2/2010
Description of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) $1.1 million wildlife crossing project in Carbon County, Wyoming at Highway 789.

Author(s): AASHTO
Pronghorn Migration Impeded by Roads in Wyoming Video3/2009
Follow Nat Geo’s Joe Riis and Freedom to Roam’s Rick Ridgeway as they explore the migration path of the pronghorn in western Wyoming, on foot and by air. Pronghorn habitat is increasingly fragmented by human development and transportation infrastructure.

Author(s): National Geographic Wild Chronicles
Protected Areas Database of the U.S. Website4/2009
PAD-US is a national inventory of protected lands which provides comprehensive information about public lands in the U.S. and includes information that allows it to be incorporated into the United Nations' World Protected Areas Database (WDPA), thus aiding a new perspective on conservation efforts worldwide.

Author(s): U.S. Geological Survey
Protected Areas Database of the U.S. Website1/2009
A spatially explicit inventory that lets any user, from the general public to professional land managers, know exactly what lands are protected anywhere the U.S. and allows them to easily use this inventory in conservation, land management, planning, recreation and other uses.

Author(s): PAD-US Partnership
Recent Lessons from the Stimulus: Transportation Funding and Job Creation Report2/2011
As part of the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act (ARRA), states and Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) received $26.6 billion in transportation funds that could be spent on almost any surface transportation needs. While there were many national goals for this money, the most pressing need was to save and create jobs. Smart Growth America determines whether states spent their flexible transportation money on projects that created the maximum number of jobs. The answer is no.

Author(s): Smart Growth America
Relationships Between Lighting and Animal-Vehicle Collisions Academic Paper10/2009
Daily and seasonal animal-vehicle collision (AVC) crash trends were examined and appear to follow the activity patterns of the U.S. deer population. AVC crash distributions are presented by state. Higher posted speeds were associated with proportionally greater crash risk in darkness. The effect is observed for fatal collisions compiled from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), and for injury and property-damage-only (PDO) crashes compiled from Michigan crash datasets.

Author(s): John Sullivan, Univ. of Michigan Transportation Research Institute
Reproductive rate and body size predict road impacts on mammal abundance Academic Paper1/2010
Mobile species should be more negatively affected by road mortality because they interact with roads more often, and that species with lower reproductive rates and longer generation times should be more susceptible to road effects because they will be less able to rebound quickly from population declines. Taken together, these hypotheses suggest that larger species should be more affected by road networks than smaller species. This study tested these hypotheses and results suggest that priority should be placed on mitigating road effects on large mammals with low reproductive rates.

Author(s): Trina Rytwinski and Lenore Fahrig, Ecological Applications
Restoration of Carnivore Habitat Connectivity in the Northern Rocky Mountains Academic Paper9/1999
The Northern Rocky Mountains are the best location in the lower 48 states to maintain functioning communities of large and mid-sized carnivores. Highways and railroads have created significant habitat fragmentation, habitat loss, mortality and other threats to these species. This paper identifies "key linkage areas" across the Northern Rocky Mountains (including highways) and recommends that planners shift towards analyzing "geographic areas" when assessing impacts of highways on wide-ranging carnivores.

Author(s): Bill Ruediger; Endangered Species Program Leader,
Review of Ecological Effects of Roads on Terrestrial and Aquatic Communities Academic Paper2/2000
This study reviews the scientific literature on the ecological effects of roads and concludes that roads are associated with negative effects on biotic integrity in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Roads of all kinds have seven general effects: mortality from road construction, mortality from collision with vehicles, modification of animal behavior, alteration of the physical environment, alteration of the chemical environment, spread of exotics, and increased use of areas by humans. The presence of roads is highly correlated with changes in species composition, population sizes, and hydrologic and geomorphic processes that shape aquatic and riparian systems.

Author(s): Stephen C. Trombulak and Christopher A. Frissell
Right of Way: Giving Animals Safe Passage Across Roadways Report12/2009
Article discussing advantages and disadvantages of different types of wildlife crossing structures/systems. From the Wildlife Professional magazine of the Wildlife Society.

Author(s): Patricia Cramer, Shauna Leavitt
Road Ecology: Science and Solutions Book12/2002
While awareness of the environmental impacts of roads is increasing, information remains scarce for those interested in studying, understanding, or minimizing the ecological effects of roads and vehicles. Road ecology addresses that shortcoming by elevating previously localized and fragmented knowledge into a broad and inclusive framework for understanding and developing solutions. The book brings together fourteen leading ecologists and transportation experts to articulate state-of-the-science road ecology principles and presents specific examples that demonstrate the application of those principles.

Author(s): Richard T.T. Forman, et al.
Road Impacts on Abundance, Call Traits, and Body Size of Rainforest Frogs in Northeast Australia Academic Paper1/2010
This study investigated effects on frog abundance and calling behavior where a busy highway crosses rainforest stream breeding habitat in northeast Australia. Abundance of two species increased significantly with perpendicular distance from the road along two transects. Potential mechanisms, effects on fitness, and management recommendations to mitigate the impacts of roads on frogs are outlined.

Author(s): C.J. Hoskin and M.W. Goosem, Ecology and Society
Road kill at record levels in North Idaho Video2/2008
All the snow in the mountains is pushing wildlife closer to populated areas in search of food and officials says it’s leading to a record year for road kill in North Idaho. KXLY4's Annie Bishop reports.

Author(s): KXLY News 4
Road kills: Assessing insect casualties in India using flagship taxon Academic Paper3/2007
In this study we have assessed the extent of insect roadkills in two national parks and a suburb-scrubland in India. The diversity and abundance of insect casualties were enumerated and compared across sites. Dragonflies and butterflies were the major insect kills. This study reveals severity of invertebrate/insect casualties on roads, conservation needs and new frontiers of road ecology.

Author(s): R. Shyama Prasad Rao and M. K. Saptha Girish
Road Permability for Animals - Guidelines for Construction Report2/2002
This report and guidelines from Croatia discuss ways in which transportation infrastructure negatively impact wildlife and habitat, analyzes ways to mitigate these impacts, and describes the elements of the environmental impact study to be considered for wildlife needs.

Author(s): Institut Gradevinarsdtva Hrvatske
Road-kills affect avian population quality Journal Article1/2011
Regarding roadkilled animals, do road-kills, as do predators, influence a population by eliminating individuals in poor condition? For three bird species, the authors compared road-killed birds to those killed by predators in SE Poland, and applied ptilochronology, in which the width of feather growth bars represents an individual’s relative nutritional condition. Results show that raptors select prey in poor condition, but road-killed individuals are in significantly better condition, so road-kill results in the random elimination of healthy individuals. If roads are killing a significant proportion of the healthier part of natural populations in a non-selective manner, fragmented populations could be driven to a critical stage, and/or declining or endangered populations could be worsened further.

Author(s): Bujoczek, Ciach, Yosef
Roadkill Blog Website1/0
A website dedicated to documenting the immense impact of roads on wildlife and advocating for mitigation and restoration projects to reduce this impact. Contains a large photo gallery of wildlife fatalities.
Roadkill...the other white meat Video2/2009
Roadkill. You maybe responsible for it. Get updated on the latest oil news from ZapRoot.

Author(s): Zaproot Website11/2008
Information and maps on roadkill in Tasmania, from a three-year study to assess the frequency and distribution of species killed. Allows you to download data to a vehicle's GPS to alert you to roadkill hotspots, in order to reduce your speed in regions where roadkill density is high.
Roads, Interrupted Dispersal, and Genetic Diversity in Timber Rattlesnakes Academic Paper2/2010
A research approach that combines fine-scale molecular genetics with behavioral and ecological data to understand the impacts of roads on population structure and connectivity. Authors used microsatellite markers to characterize genetic variation within and among populations of timber rattlesnakes occupying communal hibernacula (dens) in regions bisected by roadways. Authors examined the impact of roads on seasonal migration, genetic diversity, and gene flow among populations. Snakes in hibernacula isolated by roads had significantly lower genetic diversity and higher genetic differentiation than snakes in hibernacula in contiguous habitat. Genetic-assignment analyses revealed that interruption to seasonal migration was the mechanism underlying these patterns. Results underscore the sizeable impact of roads on this species, despite their relatively recent construction at our study sites, the utility of population genetics for studies of road ecology, and the need for mitigating effects of roads.

Author(s): R. Clark, W. Brown, R. Stechert, K. Zamudio
Roadside Use of Native Plants Book
Originally published by the U.S. Department of Transportations Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Office of Natural Environment to promote the planting and care of native plants along highway rights-of-way, this unique handbook provides managers of roadsides and adjacent lands with the information and background they need to make site-specific decisions about what kinds of native plants to use, and addresses basic techniques and misconceptions about using native plants. It brings together in a single volume a vast array of detailed information that has, until now, been scattered and difficult to find.

Author(s): Bonnie Harper-Lore & Maggie Wilson (eds.)
Safe Journeys: Opportunities for Wildlife Corridor Conservation Through the Farm Bill Report2/2009
The conservation incentives programs in the 2008 Farm Bill offer a number of opportunities for Western states to protect and restore wildlife migration corridors and crucial habitat areas. This report from the Environmental Defense Fund discusses habitat corridors as integral parts of State Wildlife Action Plans. The WGA Wildlife Corridors Initiative is addressed, and the report advises that Wildlife Action Plans target where Farm Bill programs are used to engage private landowners in conserving key wildlife corridors.

Author(s): Environmental Defense Fund
Salamander Crossing in Monkton, VT Video4/2009
Jim Andrews, herpetologist at Middlebury College, gives an interview with FOXNews about the possibility of a salamander crossing tunnel beneath a busy road in Monkton, VT. Also highlights volunteer efforts to help amphibians across streets during spring migration.

Author(s): FOXNews
Searching for Signs of Life on I-90 Newsletter10/2009
Article discussing wildlife crossings on I-90 in Washington State, from Wildlands Connection magazine.

Author(s): Paula MacKay
Second Nature: Improving Transportation Without Putting Nature Second Book0
Second Nature: Improving Transportation Without Putting Nature Second profiles innovative programs that seek to improve transportation infrastructure while protecting biodiversity. Because this concept is relatively new, many of the case studies are still in the early stages. While outcomes are uncertain, each of the programs exemplifies the creative cooperation necessary to affect change. With support, these innovative practices can become “second nature” to transportation and resource professionals across the nation.

Author(s): Patricia A. White and Michelle Ernst
Seeking Solutions to Wildlife/Highway Conflicts Using an Advocacy-Based Approach Academic Paper
Transportation systems negatively impact wildlife by increasing direct and indirect mortality and by destroying, degrading and fragmenting habitat. This paper guides citizen participation in the transportation planning process, using Florida as a model. It describes Floridas transportation planning, road-building and regulatory processes, and how wildlife advocates can work within them to influence transportation decisions. Some innovative approaches to transportation planning in Florida are described.

Author(s): Jennifer D. McMurtray, Transportation and Wildlife
Senate Hearing on Transportation Investment - March 25, 2009 Hearing Summary3/2009
A print summary and video recording of the March 25, 2009 hearing of the Senate Committee on Environment & Public Works. Full Committee hearing entitled, “The Need for Transportation Investment.”

Author(s): U.S. Senate Committee on Environment & Public Works
Shooting the Gap: Wildlife and the Trans-Canada Highway in Banff National Park Website/Video1/2000
A 24-minute video highlighting the highway which runs through Canadas oldest and most visited national park. It focuses on the efforts made by Parks Canada to improve the situation for wildlife and drivers by maintaining miles of fencing as well as several large wildlife overpasses tom allow migration and movement while reducing the odds of wildlife-vehicle collisions.

Author(s): Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society
Sloth crossing road in Costa Rica Video4/2010
This video shows a three-toed sloth attempting to cross a busy road in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica.
Smart Green Infrastructure in Tiger Range Countries: A Multi-Level Approach Report9/2010
Report on how careful design, friendly construction practices, community engagement, strong assessments, monitoring, and adaptive management can be used to ensure that infrastructure does not interrupt natural ecological processes in Tiger-Range Countries. While avoidance should be a primary focus of any effort, this report describes an array of policies and practices that help ensure a future for wild tigers.

Author(s): Quintero, Roca, Morgan, and Mathur, Global Tiger Initiative
Snapping Turtle Crosses Storrow Drive in Boston, MA Video8/2010
Video footage of a snapping turtle holding up traffic while trying to cross Boston's busy Storrow Drive. State trooper and wildlife professional manage to get turtle across highway and pedestrian trail to a lake.

Author(s): WHDH 7 News
State Climate Action Plans Website4/2009
Access to states' comprehensive Climate Action Plans. Plans detail steps that the states can take to reduce their contribution to climate change.

Author(s): Pew Center on Global Climate Change
State Farm's 2009 Top Ten List for States with Most Deer-Vehicle Collisions Reference9/2009
Discusses states with largest number of deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs), as well as states with largest increase in number of DVCs. Includes charts and maps of the likelihood of DVCs by state, and a map of the increase in DVCs by state in the U.S.

Author(s): State Farm Insurance
State Implementation of ARRA Transportation Provisions Website3/2009
Web resources on the transportation provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) and how states are implementing those provisions.

Author(s): National Conference of State Legislatures
State of the Rockies - 2009 Report Card Academic Papers4/2009
The Report Card tackles issues of wildlife in the Rockies in these papers:
- "Wildlife Range and Condition: The Historic and Current State of Wildlife in the Rockies" by Julia Head
- "Wildlife Management: Facilitating Safe and Sustainable Wildlife Populations in the Rockies" by Scott Wozencraft
- "Impacts of Energy Development on Wildlife: Highlighting the Unique Resources of the Region" by Alex Weiss

Author(s): The Colorado College
State Route 260 “Elk Crosswalk” Website10/2010
Link to final report "Preacher Canyon Wildlife Fence and Crosswalk Enhancement Project Evaluation" on website. Along State Route 260 in Arizona a “crosswalk” has been implemented to safely convey elk and other wildlife across the highway. The primary difference between the wildlife crosswalk and a normal pedestrian crossing is that this system detects wildlife through innovative technology and activates signs alerting motorists of their presence.

Author(s): AZ Game & Fish Dept.
States with Highest Number of Fatalities from Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions Reference10/2008
Discusses states with largest number of fatalities from WVCs, and when WVCs occur most. Includes insurance claims graph and table showing deaths in crashes with animals state by state, 1993-2007.

Author(s): Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
Steep, Not Cheap Video4/2008
A 10-minute video highlighting the rugged terrain through which the proposed Juneau Road would run.
STPPs Guide to TEA-21 Website
This users guide to TEA-21 gives you an in-depth look at the policies and funding, explains the major features, key opportunities for making progress and potential pitfalls.
Strategic Agenda for Reducing Deer-Vehicle Crashes Report7/2006
Summary of an October 2005 conference in which an agenda to improve deer-vehicle reduction research and data collection, funding, partnership building, and technology transfer and education was developed.
Stream Simulation: An Ecological Approach to Providing Passage for Aquatic Organisms at Road-Stream Crossings Report8/2008
The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service has released a report that explores stream simulation-a method for designing and building road-stream crossings intended to permit free and unrestricted movements of any aquatic species. Stream simulation applies to crossing structures on any transportation network, including roads, trails, and railroads.

Author(s): U.S. Forest Service
Summary Report of Peer Workshop on Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts Report12/2008
FHWA, state DOTs, and AASHTO report summarizing existing and potential strategies and approaches for adapting the nation's transportation system to the impacts of climate change.
Check out the Appendices of the report.

Author(s): Federal Highway Administration
Taking the High Road: Protecting Open Space Along Americas Highways Book1/2002
Taking the High Road: Protecting Open Space Along Americas Highways provides important information for people who want to shape new federal highway legislation, which Congress will consider in 2003. It examines the relationship between transportation policy and open space, and provides case studies of various approaches to land conservation and transportation planning

Author(s): Preston L. Schiller, Ph.D., The Trust for Public L
Taking the High Road: Treetop Bridges for Arboreal Mammals Academic Paper1/2005
Habitat fragmentation due to roads restricts the movement of many species. For arboreal species it may be necessary and effective to develop highway crossings that utilize vegetation (tree bridges). This paper discusses this strategy's potential as well as some examples.

Author(s): Hans Bekker
Temporary Bridging To Avoid Or Minimize Impacts To Waters And Wetlands During Highway Construction Report9/2008
Road construction or maintenance work near waterways has the potential to create unintended environmental impacts. The use of temporary bridging is an alternative that can save time and money while minimizing or avoiding impacts on the environment. This digest will be useful for any transportation professionals involved in the design, construction, or maintenance of road facilities in proximity to waters and wetlands.

Author(s): Christopher Hedges/National Cooperative Highway Research Program
TERRApod: Road Ecology (Episode 2) Video1/2008
An introduction to the concepts behind road ecology using the flora and fauna of Montana.

Author(s): Terra and WTI
TERRApod: Road Ecology (Episode 3) Video1/2008
An introduction to the concepts behind road ecology using the flora and fauna of Montana.

Author(s): Terra and WTI
Terrestrial Ecosystem Adaptation Report6/2009
Report evaluates adaptation issues for natural ecosystems. Expected responses of wildlife are discussed, along with facilitated habitat connectivity and assisted colonization.

Author(s): Steven W. Running and L. Scott Mills, Resources For the Future
The $61 Million Question: How Can Transportation Enhancements Benefit Wildlife? Report6/2008
Transportation Enhancements is a sadly underutilized program that could provide as much as $61 million per year for restoring wildlife habitat connectivity and reducing wildlife vehicle collisions.

Author(s): Trisha White, Jesse Feinberg, Defenders of Wildlife
The Bambi Factor Article4/2010
Article highlighting the wildlife underpasses and overpasses on U.S. Highway 93 in western Montana, and how the crossing structures have helped mitigate the death and injury toll of humans and animals on that road. Also discusses wildlife-vehicle collision statistics from other U.S. states and countries.

Author(s): Jeff Bailey, Reader
The Center for Transportation and the Environment Website
The Center for Transportation and the Environment in a US Department of Transportation university transportation center, located at North Carolina State University. Through programs of research, education and technology transfer, CTE is the only UTC in the country that seeks to mitigate the impacts of surface transportation on the environment.
The Comparison of Animal Detection Systems in a Test-Bed Report4/2009
A Quantitative Comparison of System Reliability and Experiences with Operation and Maintenance.
The reliability of nine different animal detection systems from five different manufacturers was evaluated at the same site under similar circumstances. Prepared for FHWA and Montana DOT.

Author(s): WTI: Huijser, Holland, Blank, Greenwood, McGown, Hubbard, Wang
The Conservation Registry Website6/2009
A smart, accessible database and mapping system that allows users to enter, search, map and track interesting conservation projects. The registry gathers data from multiple sources, from small organizations and landowners to federal resource agencies, non-profits, tribes and foundations. The purpose is to help users understand the context, distribution, and effectiveness of our collective efforts to protect and restore ecosystems.

Author(s): Defenders of Wildlife and The Conservation Registry Partners
The Crossing Poem5/2010
Poem about amphibian crossing volunteers in Middlebury, VT, as published in the Addison Independent on May 20, 2010.

Author(s): Raymond Hudson
The Department of the Interior's wide range of recreational, conservation, energy, land and water management programs and activities supported more than 2 million American jobs and contributed about $363 billion to the Nation's economic activity in fiscal year 2010, according to a departmental report using standard input-output economic modeling techniques.

Interior-managed public lands, through recreation visits and natural resource management activities, support a stable work-force that is important to the economic health of the communities and regions where these activities take place. Interior's programs and activities are managed primarily by its eight bureaus, each with a distinct mission, ranging from land and water management, to providing recreational services at parks, monuments and refuges, to wildlife conservation, supporting American Indian tribal communities, providing science for a changing world, and managing energy and mineral development on public lands.

Author(s): Department of Interior
The Effects of Roads on Natural Resources Report1/2002
The report describes the range of impacts that roads and road networks can have on wildlife and natural systems, and identifies roads as an issue relevant to the Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan.

Author(s): Natasha Kline, Saguaro National Park
The Effects of Roads on Wildlife: Bibliography Reference10/2002
This bibliography contains several hundred references, including books, papers and online resources, which document the effects of roads on wildlife and the ecosystem.

Author(s): Clifford G. Nietvelt
The Environmental Quarterly - July 2008 Newsletter7/2008
The FHWA's environmental newsletter for July 2008.

Author(s): Federal Highway Administration Resource Center
The Impact of Highway Plantings on Bird Mortality Academic Paper6/2001
Thorny Elaeagnus, a large, woody exotic shrub, has been used extensively by transportation departments to vegetate highway medians. Resistance to heat and drought make this evergreen shrub ideal for roadside plantings, but the large, sweet fruit it produces creates a hazard for fruit-eating birds. Migrant birds are attracted to the elaeagnus fruit, and lured into the path of oncoming traffic. Studies show that 95 of observed bird mortality can be attributed to vehicle collisions.

Author(s): Dr. Bryan D. Watts, Director, Center for Conservat
The Language of Conservation Report11/2009
How to Communicate Effectively to Build Support for Conservation: Recommendations are based on extensive qualitative research and a representative national survey of American voters commissioned by The Nature Conservancy and conducted by a bi-partisan research team.

Author(s): Fairbank, Maslin, Maullin, Metz
The Next Generation of Mitigation Report8/2009
Linking Current and Future Mitigation Programs with State Wildlife Action Plans and Other State and Regional Plans
A more comprehensive approach to application of the mitigation protocol (avoid, minimize, compensate) in existing and potential regulatory processes.
Use of SWAPs and other plans to create an effective decision-making framework for the application of the mitigation protocol.
Allocation of compensatory funds derived from mitigation in a manner that supports lasting and large scale ecological results.

Author(s): Environmental Law Institute, The Nature Conservancy
The PEL Implementation Resource Guide Website8/2008
The Planning and Environmental Linkages (PEL) Implementation Resource Guide effectively explains the concepts of PEL and provides links and diagrams to help practitioners from multiple disciplines understand how to implement PEL. This approach to transportation decision-making considers environmental, community, and economic goals early in the planning stage and carries them through project development, design, and construction.

Author(s): Federal Highway Administration
The Road Indicator Project (TRIP) - Roadless Space in America Website9/2005
TRIP develops indicators that describe how the transportation network subdivides the Nation's landscape, and how this subdivision and traffic on the network influence natural resources. Examples of TRIP products are a model of remoteness (estimated access time) of a back-country-landscape, a national dataset of distance to the nearest road, and a video portraying deflation of open space along Colorado's Front Range.
The National Overview Road Metric Euclidean Distance (NORM ED) dataset was developed to describe the extent and configuration of the spaces between roads in the United States.
- Roads and Traffic: Effects on Ecology and Wildlife Habitat Use Fact Sheet
- Distance to Nearest Road in the Conterminous United States Fact Sheet
- NORM ED Data

Author(s): USGS
The Road Not Taken: A Conservation Title for Transportation Report6/2009
TransWild Alliance platform on the transportation bill (SAFETEA-LU) reauthorization.

Author(s): TransWild Alliance
The Road to Better Transportation Projects: Public Involvement and the NEPA Process Report
The report is about a landmark law requiring the federal government to examine alternatives and seek to minimize harmful effects of federally funded projects, like highways, which have the potential to damage our health, environment and quality of life. The national Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which took effect in 1970, requires that federal agencies study and disclose the environmental effects of their actions and include the public in the decision-making process for federally funded projects.
The Roadkill Project Website1/2009
Online forum and database for New England grade school students to post roadkill findings from their areas. Lessons and activities on website, as well as results of past roadkill studies by students.

Author(s): Brewster Bartlett, aka Dr. Splatt
The Roadscape Guide: Tools to Preserve Scenic Road Corridors Report1/2009
This guide is about understanding the character of a road corridor, recognizing the forces that may bring unwelcome change, and using the right tools and techniques to preserve and enhance what is best. It covers tools communities can use to preserve open spaces and integrate new development into the landscape. To understand which tool to use, you first need to understand the “roadscape.” Examples are from the U.S. Route 7 corridor of western VT.

Author(s): Champlain Valley Greenbelt Alliance, Vermot Forum on Sprawl
The Role of Citizen Participation in Wildlife-Sensitive Transportation Projects Academic Paper3/2006
This capstone project examines the role of citizen advocacy for promoting wildlife protection in the planning and development of wildlife-sensitive transportation projects in the United States. Four major barriers to facilitating effective
citizen participation processes were identified, and four recommendations were provided to help overcome these barriers and to define a better role for citizen advocacy in protecting wildlife from the growing road network.

Author(s): Laura Archerd
The Secret Lives of Wild Animals - White-tailed Deer Website2000
Researchers placed cameras on the heads of wild deer to gain insight into their behavior, including their response to roads.
The State of the Nations Ecosystems 2008: Measuring the Lands, Water, and Living Resources of the United States Book9/2008
Revised and updated periodically, The State of the Nation’s Ecosystems is widely recognized as America’s most comprehensive report on the condition of our lands, waters, and living resources. Like the acclaimed first edition, this second edition provides nonpartisan, scientifically reliable information for policymakers, scientists, journalists, and anyone who is interested in the state of America’s environment.

Author(s): The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economic
The Tonight Show with Jeff Corwin (Part I) Video4/2010
Jeff Corwin celebrates Earth Day 2010 with Jay Leno by bringing an endangered Florida panther kitten on The Tonight Show. Corwin identifies habitat fragmentation and wildlife-vehicle collisions as huge threats to Florida panthers.

Author(s): The Tonight Show with Jay Leno
The Tonight Show with Jeff Corwin (Part II) Video4/2010
Jeff Corwin celebrates Earth Day 2010 with Jay Leno by bringing a rehabilitated injured bald eagle on The Tonight Show. Corwin describes the injury – the eagle was hit by a vehicle while feeding on road killed wildlife.

Author(s): The Tonight Show with Jay Leno
The Volpe Center Website
The John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is an internationally recognized center of transportation and logistics expertise. Through research and development, engineering and analysis, the Volpe Center helps decision-makers define problems and pursue solutions to lead transportation into the 21st century. In essence, the Volpe Center is a catalyst for innovation-a source of critical insight necessary to realize transportations promising future.
Think Moose Website6/2009
Information on moose collisions, including handouts, radio ads, podcasts of testimonials, photos, videos, and maps of hotspots and wildlife mitigation areas in New Brunswick.

Author(s): New Brunswick Department of Transportation
Threatened and Endangered Species...and Roads Video6/2010
Video on the detrimental effects that roads have on threatened and endangered species in the U.S. Based on the 2007 FHWA Wildlife Vehicle Collision Reduction Study Report to Congress.

Author(s): Becky Beard, Defenders of Wildlife
TIGER II Grants: Fast Facts Reference5/2010
Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) II grants factsheet

Author(s): Rick McKenna, compiled from USDOT info
Toad on the road: Use of roads as dispersal corridors by cane toads (Bufo marinus) at an invasion front in tropical Australia Academic Paper1/2006
This study sought to determine the impact of roads on the dispersal of the cane toad in Australia. Cane toads are an exotic invasive in Australia and cause considerable damage to native wildlife.

Author(s): Gregory P. Brown, Benjamin L. Phillips, Jonathan K. Webb, Richard Shine
Transport and the Environment - European Commission Report Report8/2009
Focuses on transport and its effects on the environment, aims to inform transport policy makers and to assist them in designing transport policies that take better account of the environmental impacts of transport, including effects of transport on land, air, water and resources.

Author(s): Transport Research Knowledge Centre - EU
Transportation and Climate Change Clearinghouse Website1/2009
The Dept. of Transportation's web-based clearinghouse of information on transportation and climate change, including information and resources on:
• Greenhouse gas inventories, forecasts, and transportation data;
• Methodologies for analyzing greenhouse gases from transportation;
• Greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies;
• Climate change impacts and adaptation;
• State and local action plans and policies;
• Federal actions; and
• Related resources.

Author(s): U.S. Department of Transportation & ICF International
Transportation and the Environment: An Annotated Bibliography Reference1/0
Developed by the Federal Railroad Administration to determine the extent to which models had been developed that permit comparisons among transportation options as to environmental impacts. Covers recent publications that describe or offer insights into environmental effects of transportation systems and how public policies are addressing transportation related environmental issues.
Transportation Ecology and Wildlife Passages: The State of the Practice and Science of Making Roads Better for Wildlife Academic Paper10/2009
This TRB article covers safety concerns, initiatives/approaches, preservation of wildlife populations, best practices for reducing WVCs, multi-species crossings, aquatic species concerns, opportunities in the field, and guidance/tools.

From TR News, May-June 2009, pp. 12-19. Copyright, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. Posted with permission of the Transportation Research Board.

Author(s): Patricia Cramer, John Bissonette
Transportation Enhancements Funding Dedicated to Wildlife Habitat Connectivity Reference6/2010
Fast facts about Transportation Enhancements (TE) federal funding and, more specifically, Category 11 funding dedicated to wildlife habitat connectivity projects.

Author(s): Christie Wood
Transportation for Health, Safety, and Active Living Webinar4/2009
Presenters from Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety, American Association of Retired Persons, National Advisory Committee of Active Living Research, and National Complete Streets Coalition investigate the needs of paratransit and transit-dependent populations, the success of Complete Streets and non-motorized transportation programs, and the connections between transportation and active living.

Author(s): Transportation for America
Transportation Research Board Climate Change Website Website2/2009
This Transportation Research Board (TRB) website offers information on TRB activities and products addressing transportation and climate change, including TRB research projects, policy studies, and committees.

Author(s): Transportation Research Board
Transportation's Role in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report4/2010
This study evaluates potentially viable strategies to reduce transportation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, examining the impact of the Nation’s transportation system on climate change and strategies to mitigate the effects of climate change by reducing GHG emissions from transportation. This study also examines the potential impact of these strategies on air quality, petroleum savings, transportation goals, costs, and other factors. Each GHG reduction strategy may have various positive impacts (including co-benefits) or negative impacts on these factors.

Author(s): U.S. DOT Center for Climate Change & Environmental Forecasting
TransWild Alliance Glossary of Relevant Terms Reference9/2009
Informal glossary of terms related to transportation bill and road ecology.

Author(s): TransWild Alliance
TransWild Alliance Seeks to Reduce Widlife Vehicle Colllisions Reference11/2009
The Western Environmental Law Center, in partnership with the TransWild Alliance, petitioned the FHWA to require the consideration of wildlife movement when planning federally funded highway projects. The petition and proposed rule can be accessed from this document.

Author(s): Western Environmental Law Center
Tucson Highway Expansion Will Include Wildlife Crossings Video1/2010
Oracle Road in Oro Valley, AZ is scheduled to be widened to six lanes but a $8.2 million project will build three wildlife crossing structures, one that goes over the road and two more that go under, and then the area will be fenced to funnel the animals through.

Author(s): KVOA News
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Pacific Region Roadway Design Guidelines Report4/2011
The guidelines identify how the U.S. FWS Pacific Region will deliver surface transportation and related improvements, consistent with the FWS mission, on the roads and lands that they manage. Highlights ecological, planning, design and engineering considerations for roadway projects. Serve as a wayfinding tool intended to facilitate dialog and decision making among project teams, and have been crafted to support the interdisciplinary team involved with decision making regarding a roadway project: Project Leaders, Project Managers, and technical experts.

Author(s): U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Pacific Region
U.S. Highway 93 Wildlife Mitigation Outreach Brochure10/2010
Outreach brochure describes wildlife mitigation, why it's particularly important along US Hwy 93 in Montana, how mitigation sites were selected, and details about the project.

Author(s): People's Way Partnership
US 93 (MT) Post Construction Wildlife Crossing Structure Monitoring Website8/2009
US 93 Evaro - Polson (The Peoples Way) on the Flathead Indian Reservation: the post-construction wildlife monitoring project is currently underway as a cooperative study between Montana DOT, FHWA, Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, and Western Transportation Institute. Numerous species are using the crossing structures, and some species are using them as regular travel corridors within their home ranges.

Author(s): Montana Department of Transportation
US 93 Bighorn Sheep Crossing in Arizona Video2/2011
Arizona Game and Fish Dept. video of desert bighorn sheep crossings at a wildlife overpass on US 93. Locations of 3 wildlife overpasses were identified through GPS collared sheep movement data beginning in 2004, and the structures and associated funnel fencing were completed in early 2011. Joint project between ADOT, FHWA, AZGFD, NPS, BLM, and Arizona Desert Bighorn Sheep Society.

Author(s): Arizona Game & Fish Department
US 93 Preliminary Post Construction Wildlife Crossing Structure Monitoring Website7/2009
Photos from camera monitoring of the wildlife crossing structures for wildlife use along US 93 Evaro to Polson (The Peoples Way) on the Flathead Indian Reservation.

Author(s): Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes
USGS National Climate Change an d Wildlife Science Center Final Report on Outreach & Recommendations Report12/2009
This report summarizes the process that created the National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center. The USGS engaged a wide array of stakeholders in planning for the Center, with the intent of providing scientific information about the complex effects of climate change on terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals. A series of workshops was organized to help identify information gaps, research needs and priorities, collaboration strategies, and an organizational and staffing structure that would meet the goals of the Center. The USGS envisions ultimately setting up Regional Climate Science Hubs to ensure full geographic coverage in the U.S.

Author(s): The Wildlife Society, Ecological Society of America
Utah Rural Roadsides for Wildlife Program Website1/2010
Description and purpose of Utah's roadside wildlife habitat program.

Author(s): Utah Division of Wildlife Resources
Vermont Video4/2008
Vermont Public Television shows dedicated volunteer efforts to ensure a safe spring migration of amphibians across the state’s heavily traveled roads.

Author(s): Vermont Public TV
Vertebrate Road Mortality Predominantly Impacts Amphibians Academic Paper12/2007
One potential contributor to global amphibian decline is mortality due to traffic (“road-kill”). Most studies of road-kill have focused on large mammals, but relatively little research has evaluated the impact of road-kill on other wild animals. This study surveyed road mortality in Indiana and found that road mortality impacts a wide variety of species and that habitat type strongly influences frequency of road-kill. Amphibians may be especially vulnerable because they often migrate en masse to or from breeding wetlands. Clearly, road-kill is a major source of amphibian mortality and may contribute to their global decline.

Author(s): D. J. Glista, T. L. DeVault, J. A. DeWoody
Video Surveillance to Assess Highway Underpass Use by Elk in Arizona Academic Paper1/2007
This paper contains the results of a three-year study of the response of Rocky Mountain Elk to two highway underpasses in central Arizona. It identifies usage patterns and points out differences in usage and design of the two underpasses.

Author(s): Dodd, et al.
Video: Critter Crossing Bridges for Small Mammals in MT Video1/2009
Univ. of Montana and Roscoe Culvert install "Critter Crossing" bridges for small mammals in several culverts along Highway 93 in Montana.

Author(s): Montana
Volunteer Wildlife Cams Open Experts’ Eyes Video12/2009
Remote wildlife cameras in Washington state reveal heavily traveled wildlife routes that can help transportation officials allow for animal crossings when building or repairing highways. A remote camera caught the first images of a wolverine in the state, south of I-90.

Author(s): KING5 News
Washington Wildlife Crossings Field Course Website6/2008
Three-day field course on wildlife crossings and corridors. Videos and PDFs of presentations available on website.

Author(s): Center for Transportation and the Environment
Washington Wildlife Habitat Connectivity Working Group Website12/2010
A science-based partnership composed of participants representing land and natural resource management agencies, organizations, tribes, and universities, co-led by WA DFW and WSDOT. Participants are organizations and individuals that engage in the development of the Washington Wildlife Habitat Connectivity Analysis.

Author(s): Washington Wildlife Habitat Connectivity Working Group
Watch Out for Wildlife Video9/2009
Watch Out for Wildlife Awareness Week is the third week of every September. Defenders of Wildlife is committed to protecting our members and the driving public from the dangers of wildlife-vehicle collisions. Every year an estimated 1.5 million animals are hit on U.S. roads; more than 200 people are killed in collisions with deer, elk and other wildlife; wildlife-vehicle collisions cause $1 billion in property damage each year.

Author(s): Defenders of Wildlife
Watch Out for Wildlife Fact Sheet Reference9/2009
Watch Out for Wildlife Awareness Week is the third week of every September. This fact sheet identifies some of the threats to people and wildlife on our roadways.

Author(s): Defenders of Wildlife
Webinar: Sustainable Stormwater Management Practices Webinar4/2009
Wendi Goldsmith, President of the Bioengineering Group, Inc., discussed innovative strategies for natural onsite stormwater storage and treatment, along with the importance of sustainable stormwater management practices.

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Author(s): Context Sensitive Solutions
Webinar: Transportation and Social Equity Webinar4/2009
Presenters from PolicyLink, Transportation Equity Network, Partnerships for Equitable Development at Emory University, and Mid-America Regional Council examine how transportation access and mobility affects basic needs such as healthcare, education, and economic opportunity for millions of Americans.

Link to all T4America webinars:

Author(s): Transportation for America
Webinar: Transportation, Climate and Energy Webinar4/2009
Presenters from Natural Resources Defense Council, Sierra Club, Chesapeake Bay Foundation, and Environmental Defense Fund explore how reforming our local, state and federal transportation policies can help conserve oil and contribute to meeting the nation's energy goals.

Author(s): Transportation for America
Webinar: Transportation, Housing, and Development Webinar4/2009
Presenters from Reconnecting America, Center for Transit Oriented Development, Brookings Institution, Housing Preservation Project, and Urban Land Institute explore the linkages between transportation and housing development, the shift in housing and real estate preferences and value, and the creation of affordable mixed-use development near jobs and transit.

Author(s): Transportation for America
Wild animals safely cross Netherlands eco-bridge Video9/2009
Wildlife can safely cross a road and railway running between two Dutch towns south of Amsterdam, by using a bridge connecting two parts of a nature reserve. This wildlife crossing structure is the longest in the world, at 800 meters in length.

Author(s): Radio Netherlands
Wildlife and Roads Website
A resource for mitigating the effects of roads on wildlife using wildlife crossings such as overpasses, underpasses, and crosswalks.
Wildlife and traffic crossing deadly paths Video11/2010
Deer crossing highways and roads at dusk and night are causing vehicle collisions in Arapahoe County, Colorado. Reporter talks to citizen who cites habitat loss as a primary cause.

Author(s): KDVR Denver News
Wildlife and Traffic: A European Handbook for Identifying Conflicts and Designing Solutions Report1/2003
Habitat Fragmentation Due to Transportation Infrastructure
Discusses the minimization of ecological barriers and fragmentation effects of transport infrastructure. Solution-orientated handbook which takes the reader from the first steps of strategic planning, through the integration of roads in the landscape, the use of mitigation measures, the field of compensatory measures, and to the methods of monitoring and evaluating chosen solutions.

Author(s): European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research
Wildlife bridge on Hwy 93 near Wells, Nevada Video4/2010
Video shows construction underway on a wildlife bridge, or overpass, on Highway 93 near Wells, NV.

Author(s): Nevada Wilderness
Wildlife caught on remote camera: 2010 Video12/2010
Photos and video of Washington wildlife caught on remote trail cameras.

Author(s): Conservation Northwest
Wildlife crossing enhancements continue to advance Website7/2010
Website of the Washington State Department of Transportation. The blog discusses the progress of wildlife crossing zones in the states of Washington and Colorado. Also mentioned are the Wildlife Corridors Conservation Act of 2010 (HR 5101), which has been introduced in Congress, and the 2011 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation (ICOET).
Wildlife Crossing Structure Handbook, Design and Evaluation in North America Report3/2011
FHWA Central Federal Lands Highway Publication No. FHWA-CFL/TD-11-003
Provides technical guidelines for the planning, design and evaluation of wildlife crossing structures and associated fencing or gates that facilitate the safe movement of wildlife across roads and increase motorist safety. Prepared for transportation, natural resource and land mgmt. agencies, and stakeholder groups, responsible for planning, designing and implementing measures for mitigating the impacts of roads on wildlife populations. Describes how to increase the effectiveness of established designs and recommends ways to design for particular species in different landscapes. Can be used for wildlife crossings on new or existing highways, highway expansions and bridge reconstruction projects. Design guidelines are intended to be a starting point for the future development of more regionalized, landscape-specific guidelines based on an adaptive management process.

Author(s): Anthony Clevenger, Marcel Huijser
Wildlife Crossing Study: U.S. Highway 287/26, Moran Junction – Dubois Report4/2006
Prepared for FHWA and Wyoming DOT, this study provides information about wildlife crossings, wildlife-vehicle collisions, and wildlife movement on U.S. Highway 287/26 to aid in highway project design and construction.

Author(s): David Young and Hall Sawyer
Wildlife Crossings Guidance Manual Report10/2007
The Manual is a literature-based guide on how to identify and assess placement of wildlife crossings and also includes a review of best practices.

Author(s): Caltrans
Wildlife Friendly Fences Guide - 2008 Reference1/2008
Montana is criscrossed with thousands of miles of fences, which divide ranches and outline property boundaries throughout the state. These fences can be a barrier to wildlife, from large mammals to birds, causing avoidable injuries and fatalities. Landowners are also forced to devote significant amounts of time and energy to repairing animal damage to their fences. This guide serves as a tool for landowners to minimize fence-related wildlife fatalities and the resulting costs to landowners.

Author(s): Christine Paige
Wildlife Highway Mortality and Linkage Assessment Report11/2009
A Prioritization and Planning Tool for Western Montana
To help identify and prioritize potential wildlife mitigation project areas along roadways in western Montana, American Wildlands initiated a wildlife highway mortality and linkage assessment, that is a planning tool that incorporates the best available wildlife collision and linkage data, as well as collaborative expertise, to build common ground and predictability on where to focus wildlife mitigation projects along highways over the next 5 to 20 years.

Author(s): American Wildlands: Williamson, Betsch, Meiklejohn, Olimb, Taylor
Wildlife Roadkill Identification Pocket Guide Report12/2009
This pocket guide provides species-specific information on wildlife typically found on BC highways to assist those identifying carcasses for Wildlife Accident Reporting System reporting purposes. The guide provides a general description of the physical appearance, life stages, numerical abundance and geographic distribution of each animal. Where ID of a wild animal is difficult because of the condition of its remains, more accurate reporting may be possible by observing identifiable physical characteristics, such as color, size and footprint pattern, and cross referencing these details with typical seasonal periods of activity and known mapped habitat locations near Provincial highways.

Author(s): British Columbia Ministry of Transportation & Infrastructrue
Wildlife Roadkill Identification Pocket Guide (2009 Edition) Reference1/2009
This pocket guide (70 pages, full color) from the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure (BC MoT) provides species-specific information on wildlife typically found on British Columbia highways to assist those identifying carcasses for Wildlife Accident Reporting System (WARS) reporting purposes. The guide provides a general description of the physical appearance, life stages, numerical abundance and geographic distribution of each animal.

Author(s): Leonard E. Sielecki
Wildlife Using Crossing Structures Along US 93 in Montana Video1/2011
Selected images of various wildlife species using wildlife crossing structures along Montana's US 93 on the Flathead Indian Reservation.

Author(s): CSKT, MDT, WTI-MSU
Wildlife Vehicle Collision Reduction Online Training Course Website5/2010
The web-based training course is based on the findings of the Wildlife Vehicle Collision Reduction Study: Report to Congress, and the Best Practices Manual.

Author(s): FHWA
Wildlife Vehicle Collision Reduction Study Report10/2008
This report to Congress details the causes and impacts of wildlife-vehicle collisions and identified potential solutions. Also a best-practices manual for practitioners responsible for addressing this safety problem.

Author(s): Federal Highway Administration
Wildlife Watching in the United States: The Economic Impacts on National and State Economies in 2006 Report10/2008
A new report recently released by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service shows that expenditures for wildlife watching are equivalent to the revenues generated from all spectator sports, amusement parks and arcades, non-hotel casinos, bowling centers and skiing facilities combined. In 2006, the direct expenditures of wildlife watchers generated $122.6 billion in total industrial output. This resulted in 1,063,482 jobs, a federal tax revenue of $9.3 billion, and a state and local tax revenue of $8.9 billion. The report addresses participation nationwide in wildlife watching, associated expenditures and estimates of the total economic activity generated by these expenditures.

Author(s): U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
Wildlife-related Road Impacts in the Yellowstone to Yukon Region Report1/0
A detailed summary of the impacts of roads on several species of medium- to large-sized mammals.

Author(s): Frank Lance Craighead
Wildlife-Vehicle Collision and Crossing Mitigation Measures: A Literature Review for Blaine County, Idaho Report5/2008
Blaine County, in cooperation with the Idaho Transportation Department, sought to gather more information about the wildlife-vehicle collisions and the potential installation of an animal detection system along the 26 mile long section of State Highway 75 (SH 75) between Timmerman Jct (Jct with Highway 20) and the Trail Creek Bridge in Ketchum, Idaho. The ultimate purpose of the effort is to eventually contribute to a reduction in animal-vehicle collisions, especially with mule deer and elk.

Author(s): Western Transportation Institute
Wildlife-Vehicle Collision and Crossing Mitigation Measures: A Toolbox for the Montana Dept. of Transportation Report5/2007
Reviews 39 mitigation measures that reduce WVCs and provide habitat connectivity for wildlife across highways (restricted to mitigation measures aimed at large terrestrial mammals). Also includes info regarding how such measures may affect or benefit federally endangered or threatened species in Montana, regardless of size. Graphically illustrates which measures have the best monetary balance and which measures reduce WVCs and associated costs best. Based on the results, the authors identified wildlife fencing, w/ or w/out wildlife underpasses or a combo of wildlife underpasses and overpasses, and animal detection systems with wildlife fencing, as the most cost-effective mitigation measures.

Author(s): Western Transportation Institute
Yellowstone National Park Speed Reduction to Reduce Wildlife Mortality Academic Paper
Studies have shown that reduction of speed on highways through public lands can reduce collisions between vehicles and wildlife. A study conducted in Yellowstone National Park concluded that vehicle speed in the park was more significantly impacted by road condition rather than speed limit.